Download Chronology - Michelangelo

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Meanwhile in Eastern Europe the Ottoman Empire was facing its decline after huge losses of
territory, and following administrative instability due to the breakdown of centralised
government. This is the period when Bulgaria fiercely fought for its independence after the
Russo-Turkish War in 1877-78. Fuelled by nationalistic movements the Bulgarian artists entered
the period of National Revival and started turning their gaze to secular topics rather than
religious ones.
The growing Austrian bourgeoisie class was reflected in a more solid and monumental
architecture in the 19th century. The architecture of public buildings remained largely
Neoclassical, such as the Palace of Provincial Government in Vienna. The most remarkable
Austrian architecture in the 19th century was the construction of the Ringstrasse, a circular road
surrounding the Innere Stadt district of Vienna. The clambering of European architects wanting
to be involved in the project resulted in an interestingly eclectic mix of French Neo-Gothic (the
Votivkirche), Flemish Neo-Gothic (the Rathaus), Greek Revival (Parliament), French
Renaissance (Staatsoper) and Tuscan Renaissance (Museum of Applied Arts). In the visual
arts a school of Romantic realist painters emerged in rebellion to the ‘academic’ or ‘official’ art of
previous centuries. A good example of these artists was realist painter Georg Waldmüller
(1793-1865), and in particular, his depiction of Viennese Biedermeier society in Wiener Zimmer
(1837). Other important realist painters included Carl Moll (1861-1945), and Joseph Engelhart
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