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Amarante. The Great Lisbon Earthquake of 1755 destroyed centuries of art and architecture,
reducing the royal palace and its patriarchal church and library to rubble. The new city was
rebuilt in the Pombaline style so named after the chief architect in Lisbon’s reconstruction,
Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquês de Pombal. As a result of practical necessity,
low funds and little time the city was re-designed in a restrained form of Neoclassism. The
intelligent architecture proposed the world’s first anti-seismic system as well as the first
prefabricated plan for construction on a city-large scale. Lisbon became transformed from a
mediaeval city to an intelligent modern landscape with large light spaces and good ventilation.
Romania
Phanariot Rule brought elements of the Orient into the architecture of Wallachia and Moldavia.
There was a relative decrease in ecclesiastical building at this time so the style is most
prevalent in secular urban civil architecture. In Transylvania both secular and ecclesiastical
architecture was dominated by the Baroque. Examples of this are the Roman Catholic churches
in Timisoara and Oradea, Banffy Palace in Cluj and Brukenthal Palace in Sibiu. Other important
architecture of this period includes the wooden churches of the Maramureş region in Northern
Transylvania, built in response to a prohibition against the erection of stone Romanian Orthodox
churches. A tall tower above the entrance and an oversized roof are the characteristics of these
churches. The church tower found in the Surdeşti village, constructed between 1721–1724, is
one of the highest of this kind in Europe.
The Scandinavian Countries
Despite its political difficulties Sweden’s culture and arts continued to flourish throughout the
18th century. A growing aristocracy joined the monastic patrons of Swedish artworks. It was the
French Rococo which heavily influenced these arts in the 18th century, leaving its traces in
important buildings such as the Royal Palace, and in the paintings of important painters, such
as those of Alexander Rosin. Neoclassism became popular toward the end of the century,
promoted by King Gustav III, who reigned 1771-1792. This style can be seen in the sculptures
of Johan Tobias Sergel. Both Sergel and Rosin became the first Swedish artists to gain
international recognition. Despite the growing number of internationally recognised
Scandinavian artists, many international artists continued to be employed to execute the
fashionable foreign styles. An example of these artists was French born Louis-Jean Desprez,
the architect of the Neoclassic Botany Department of Uppsala University (begun 1787).
Spain
18th Century Spain was in political and economic decline after the death of Charles II in 1700,
and at the end of the golden Hapsburg era. However, increases in the economy and trade had a
beneficial impact on the arts. This was especially evident in the decorative arts and printmaking,
as well as ceramics, glass and porcelain. Factories were quickly established in Alcora (1727),
La Granja (1728), and Buen Retiro (1759). The introduction of foreign artists into the courts of
the Bourbon Dynasty led to a waning of regional development in Spanish art. The most
apparent effects of this foreign influence can be seen in the French and Italian style ornate
Bourbon architecture of Madrid. An example of this can be seen at the Royal Palace, designed
by Italian architects Juvarra and Giambattista Sacchetti. Spanish individualism was reawakened
in the work of Francisco Goya (1746-1828), who dominated the Spanish arts through the 18th
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