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Austria
The 12th century saw the height of the Romanesque style in Austria. Important treasures of this
time include the Admont Bible (created around 1140) and the work of the goldsmith Nicolas de
Verdun, his most notable creation being the enamel work of the pulpit at Klosterneuburg Abbey.
Vienna had become an important city for German civilisation by the mid 12th century. The most
important religious building in Vienna, St Stephen’s Cathedral, was built to reflect Vienna’s
urban growth and importance. The original Romanesque structure was built in this period with
Gothic expansions occurring over the following centuries.
Bulgaria
The frescoes at the Ivanovo Rock-Hewn Churches in God’s Gorge demonstrate the continuing
dominance of both Byzantine control and culture in Bulgaria in the 12th century. The images
were created at the beginning of the religious community in the area, and were created by
monks and hermits under a vow of silence. The images are an example of the Palaeologan
style. Features include the appearance of three-dimensional images which are very spatial in
their environment, figures which are more proportionate to their surroundings, attempts at
presenting the anatomy of the figure, images containing an element of narrative through the use
of motion and changes in the style of decoration. Importantly there is also a degree of variation
in Bulgarian style and interpretation found in the images. The anonymity of the artists during this
period was common in Bulgaria.
Frescoes at the Ivanovo RockHewn Churches
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