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during Louis regime it was the second wave of Neoclassicism that rode through Europe on the
back of the Napoleonic Empire.
The new ideologies that spurned political unrest and a new ‘enlightened’ Europe also gave rise
to a new cultural movement by the end of the century known as the Romantic Movement. The
philosophies which took root in Central and Western Europe influenced almost every cultural
part of the age known as the Enlightenment. The Romantic Movement, as it is known developed
as a reaction to the constraints of this Enlightenment. By the end of the century this ‘Age of
Reason’ and scientific discovery was completely rejected in favour of a focus on the senses and
emotion, especially within the arts.
As the Ottoman Empire entered a period of stagnation (1699–1827) it began to lose its grasp on
Eastern Europe. As the Ottoman Empire began to concede its power to Austria, Britain and
France, centralised authority was replaced by varying degrees of autonomy at a local level. This
gave rise to a number of different independent art schools throughout Bulgarian lands. These
schools all followed the principles of the Bulgarian Turnovo art school and deviated from the
Greek Orthodox art dogma.
Austria
As in the rest of Europe the 18th century saw the introduction of the Rococo style to Austria as
well as its subsequent rejection in favour of Classicism. The foremost examples of the Rococo
in Austria include the Abbeys of Dürnstein (1731-35) and Melk, both located in Lower Austria.
The most prominent supporter of the Rococo in Austria was Maria Theresa who used the style
extensively in the refurbishment of Schönbrunn Palace. Maria’s court painter Martin van
Meytens provided the greatest visual record of Austrian court life. The leading figures in
Baroque sculpture at this time were Georg Raphael Donner (1693-1741), responsible for the
life-sized bronze statues at the Fountain of Providence in the Nuer Market, Balthasar Permoser
(1651-1732), who created the equestrian statues in the courtyard of Belvedere palace,
Balthasar Moll (1717-85) who created the famous double sarcophagus for Maria and her
husband in the Kapuzinerkirche, and the German-born German Franz Xaver Messerschmidt
(1737-83) who is famous for his portrait busts.
Franz Xaver Messerschmidt: The Beaked
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