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In Germany it was Casper David Friedrich’s Monk by the Sea (1774-1840), which marked the
changes in German artwork and the introduction of landscape painting in the 19 century. The
picture, with its colossal sky and dark narrow band of sea, evokes an emptiness and vastness
with the monk, a tiny figure placed where the sky meets the sea. His work represents the new
position landscape held in painting, rising from a subordinate background, to the focus of the
painting. The work is also represeantative of a focus on emotion and the evocation of nature,
two new common themes of German art. The focus on nature in Friedrich’s work reflects the
Romantic concern with experiencing nature as a means of getting closer to God. Friedrich’s
influence on the Romantic Movement stretched into the next century, influencing artists such as
Barnett Newman (1905-1970). Other great artists in the era of Romanticism include Philipp Otto
Runge (1777 – 1810), famed for his work on colour theory and highly interested in the
connections between painting of landscape and symbolic expression, and Karl Friedrich
Schinkel (1781 – 1841) an architect very interested in Gothic architecture, which he directly
incorporated into his practice of the Neo-classical style.
Due to Ottoman rule Greek art had been centred on Crete and the Ionian Islands from the 16th
to the 19th century. This meant that mainland Greece had not developed with the natural
progression of mainstream European art, such as the Renaissance and the movements which
followed. The starting point for Greek art in the modern sense coincided with Romanticism.
Greek Romanticism combined revolutionary ideals with Greek history and geography. PostOttoman rule, the majority of Greek training was still carried out abroad, and The School in
Munich was a favourite destination. This gave rise to a bond with Greek artists which led to a
Munich School of painting in Greece. Greek Munich School painters placed emphasis on
landscape and portraiture painting as well as still-life. This school produced the first painters of
‘free Greece’, such as Theodoros Vryzakis (1814–1878) and Dionysios Tsokos (1820–1862),
and as such much of their work concerned aspects of war and revolution. The main
representatives of the school are Nikiphoros Lytras (1832–1904), Nikolaos Gysis (1842–1901)
and Georgios Iacovidis. (1853–1907). Despite a number of Greek artists training in Paris, very
few abandoned the teachings of the French Academy and followed the Impressionists; the first
of those who did was Périclès Pantazis. The departure from academic realism by painters such
as Pantazis, was an early indication of the move to replace academism, realism, genre painting,
upper middle class portraiture, still-life and landscape painting with that of symbolism,
Jugendstil and Art Nouveau which would occur by the end of the century is shown by the
acceptance of Expressionist artists teaching at the Athens school of arts.
Hungarian painting reached its peak during the Romantic period of the 19th century. Many
Hungarian painters early in the century were forced to leave Hungary to earn a living. These
included Károly Markó the Elder (1791-1860), the greatest landscape painter of the period
(famous for his painting, Visegrád). Miklós Barabás (1810-1896) was the first popular Hungarian
portrait and landscape painter and was one of few Hungarian painters who managed to make a
living from painting. No other painters of this era equalled Barabás’ popularity or his success. A
leading figure in Hungarian sculpture at this time was István Ferenczy (1792-1858). His statue