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Evolution (aka the best section)
1. Who is considered the father of Evolution? What was his main statement that went
against the beliefs of many?
Darwin, species are not fixed rather they evolve
2. Who were the two men (and what were their findings) that helped guide Darwin in his
Lyell: gradualism (earth is sculpted by gradual geological process)
Lamarck: hypothesis of evolution (adaptations can allow an individual success based on its
environment and are passed on)
3. What were the 3 important observations that Darwin made during his voyage?
1. Organisms had characteristics that made them well suited for their environment
2. Species that are geographically close together resemble one another
3. Similarities between fossils and living organisms are found in the same area
4. What are the 2 major findings of Darwin? Give an example of each.
1. Descent with modification (species descend from one ancestor; descendants have
accumulated adaptations that help them in their environment)
2. Natural selection is the mechanism for descent with modification
5. What is natural selection and what can it lead to?
Evolutionary adaptations that help a species in their environment, increases the frequency
of these traits in a population. It can also cause unequal reproductive success.
6. What are the 3 observations taken from the idea of natural selection?
1. Overproduction and competition for resources
2. Individual variation
3. Unequal reproductive success= increase of certain traits
7. What is artificial selection?
Choosing of specific traits to be shown in an organism
8. Give an example of artificial selection where it is a positive experience and a negative
Choosing a trait for beef cattle to be more muscular. Spraying crops to keep bugs away and
having a few survive and reproduce.
9. What does the idea of “fitness” refer to?
Producing viable offspring to pass on genes to next generation
10. Evolution is a controversial topic for some, as some people believe it is not “real”. What
are some examples that act as proof of evolution?
Direct observations, fossil record, comparative study, and geography