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Transcript
Particle Physics, Autumn 2014 CMI
Problem set 10
Due at the beginning of lecture on Tuesday Feb 10, 2015
Lorentz invariant volume element and Radiation gauge
1. h4i It is often necessary to integrate quantities ( f below) over all possible on-shell 4-momenta
of a particle of mass m. These momenta lie on the upper sheet of a two sheeted hyperboloid in
Minkowski space. Show that
Z
Z
d4 p
d3 p
0
2
2
0
f
(p
,
p)2πδ(p
−
m
)θ(p
>
0)
=
f (E p , p).
(1)
(2π)4
2Ep (2π)3
where Ep =
p
p2 + m2 is the energy of the particle and θ is the Heaviside step function.
2. h4i The group of gauge transformations parametrized by θ(x, t) acts on the space of gauge potentials via
1 ∂θ
A0 = A + ∇θ, φ0 = φ −
.
(2)
c ∂t
Gauge potentials that differ by a gauge transformation represent the same electric and magnetic
fields and are said to lie on a common orbit of the gauge group. A gauge choice is a choice of orbit
representative. Coulomb gauge is defined by the condition ∇ · A = 0. Given a vector potential A0
find the gauge transformation θ that transforms it to a vector potential A in Coulomb gauge. i.e.,
find the equation that θ must satisfy and an integral expression for the solution. Hint: Recall the
formula for the electrostatic potential due to a given charge distribution.
3. h9i Suppose we use radiation gauge φ = 0, ∇ · A = 0 and expand A in Fourier modes
c X
Ak (t)eik·r .
(3)
A(r, t) = √
V k
R
0
c is the speed of light and radiation fills a large cavity of volume V , with d3 r ei(k−k )·r = Vδkk0 .
Moreover, reality of A(r, t) implies A−k = A∗k .
(a) h3i Show that the electric (−∇φ −
1 ∂A
c ∂t )
and magnetic (∇ × A) fields are
1 X
E=−√
Ȧk eik·r
V k
and
ic X
B= √
(k × Ak )eik·r .
V k
(4)
Hint: You need to use a vector identity to get the expression for the magnetic field.
(b) h6i Show that the electric and magnetic energies are
Z
Z
1
1X
1
c2 X
E2 d3 r =
|Ȧk |2 and
B2 d 3 r =
|k × Ak |2 .
2
2 k
2
2 k
1
(5)