The flux-line lattice in superconductors

... Magnetic flux can penetrate a type-II superconductor in the form of Abrikosov vortices (also called flux lines, flux tubes, or fluxons) each carrying a quantum of magnetic flux &, = h/Ze. These tiny vortices of supercurrent tend to arrange themselves in a hiangular flux-lie lattice (FLL), which is m ...

... Magnetic flux can penetrate a type-II superconductor in the form of Abrikosov vortices (also called flux lines, flux tubes, or fluxons) each carrying a quantum of magnetic flux &, = h/Ze. These tiny vortices of supercurrent tend to arrange themselves in a hiangular flux-lie lattice (FLL), which is m ...

UNIVERSITAT POLITÈCNICA DE CATALUNYA Tesi Doctoral

... In view of these tables, the condition number for the PeC-EFJE(RWG,RWG) gets to be even two orders of magnitude higher than for the PeC-MFLE(RWG,unxRWG), which is very stable in any case. For electrically bigger bodies, although one cannot assess it directly through the tables -the required amount o ...

... In view of these tables, the condition number for the PeC-EFJE(RWG,RWG) gets to be even two orders of magnitude higher than for the PeC-MFLE(RWG,unxRWG), which is very stable in any case. For electrically bigger bodies, although one cannot assess it directly through the tables -the required amount o ...

A finite element analysis of critical state models for type

... state problems is found in mathematical literature. The purpose of this paper is to define a finite element approximation in this setting and prove convergence. Following Prigozhin (1996a,b) we formulate the magnetic field around the bulk type-II superconductor as an unknown quantity in an evolution ...

... state problems is found in mathematical literature. The purpose of this paper is to define a finite element approximation in this setting and prove convergence. Following Prigozhin (1996a,b) we formulate the magnetic field around the bulk type-II superconductor as an unknown quantity in an evolution ...

Condensation and pattern formation in cold exciton gases in

... (section 3.2). Therefore, there are two ways to overcome the obstacle of hot generation and study cold gases of indirect excitons with TX ≈ Tlattice : (1) use a separation in time and study the indirect excitons a few ns after the end of the photoexcitation pulses (these experiments are overviewed i ...

... (section 3.2). Therefore, there are two ways to overcome the obstacle of hot generation and study cold gases of indirect excitons with TX ≈ Tlattice : (1) use a separation in time and study the indirect excitons a few ns after the end of the photoexcitation pulses (these experiments are overviewed i ...

The Tutorial as PDF.

... 7.1 A plot of the real part and imaginary part of the accelerating voltage of the monopole mode in the cavity with plungers. Only the real part would be nonzero, if the symmetry plane at z=0 would not have been used. One can clearly see that the accelerating voltage no longer is independent of the x ...

... 7.1 A plot of the real part and imaginary part of the accelerating voltage of the monopole mode in the cavity with plungers. Only the real part would be nonzero, if the symmetry plane at z=0 would not have been used. One can clearly see that the accelerating voltage no longer is independent of the x ...

Lecture Notes 18: Relativistic Electrodynamics

... We see that the observed line charge densities and as seen in the lab frame IRF(S) and the test charge rest frame IRF(S'), respectively are larger by factors of and respectively compared to the line charge density as observed in the rest frame IRF(S0) of the line charge density itself. T ...

... We see that the observed line charge densities and as seen in the lab frame IRF(S) and the test charge rest frame IRF(S'), respectively are larger by factors of and respectively compared to the line charge density as observed in the rest frame IRF(S0) of the line charge density itself. T ...

Lecture Notes 11: Potentials and Fields, Potential Formulation, Gauge Transformations, Jefimenko's Equations, Feynman-Heaviside Eqns for Moving Point Charge

... (Most useful in electrodynamics) t Ludwig Valentin Lorenz, Danish physicist – a contemporary of J.C. Maxwell, ca. 1867 – not to be confused with Hendrick A. Lorentz, Dutch physicist & contemporary of Albert Einstein… {See/read J.D. Jackson & L.B. Okun’s “Historical Roots of Gauge Invariance” Rev. M ...

... (Most useful in electrodynamics) t Ludwig Valentin Lorenz, Danish physicist – a contemporary of J.C. Maxwell, ca. 1867 – not to be confused with Hendrick A. Lorentz, Dutch physicist & contemporary of Albert Einstein… {See/read J.D. Jackson & L.B. Okun’s “Historical Roots of Gauge Invariance” Rev. M ...

AC loss in superconducting tapes and cables

... The occurrence of superconductivity in high-Tc materials is not yet fully understood. It is not completely explained by the BCS theory, which satisfactorily describes the lowtemperature superconductors. Nevertheless the high-Tc materials are known to be type-II superconductors. A magnetic field pene ...

... The occurrence of superconductivity in high-Tc materials is not yet fully understood. It is not completely explained by the BCS theory, which satisfactorily describes the lowtemperature superconductors. Nevertheless the high-Tc materials are known to be type-II superconductors. A magnetic field pene ...

Electric field, Magnetic field and Magnetization: THz time

... For many gas molecules, the energy required for the transitions between the rotational energy levels lies in the THz region. For example, dichloromethane has rotational lines with transitions up to 2.5 THz [7]. In the solid crystalline phase, the atoms or molecules are held close to their equilibriu ...

... For many gas molecules, the energy required for the transitions between the rotational energy levels lies in the THz region. For example, dichloromethane has rotational lines with transitions up to 2.5 THz [7]. In the solid crystalline phase, the atoms or molecules are held close to their equilibriu ...

Topics on the theory of electron spins in semiconductors

... D’yakonov-Perel’ mechanism, which the dominant spin relaxation mechanism in the materials considered here, can be suppressed at low temperatures much more effectively than can be done in zinc-blende due to the difference in spin-orbit fields. Suppression of spin relaxation is also greater in wurtzit ...

... D’yakonov-Perel’ mechanism, which the dominant spin relaxation mechanism in the materials considered here, can be suppressed at low temperatures much more effectively than can be done in zinc-blende due to the difference in spin-orbit fields. Suppression of spin relaxation is also greater in wurtzit ...

# Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force usually shows electromagnetic fields, such as electric fields, magnetic fields, and light. The electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature. The other three fundamental interactions are the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation.The word electromagnetism is a compound form of two Greek terms, ἤλεκτρον, ēlektron, ""amber"", and μαγνῆτις λίθος magnētis lithos, which means ""magnesian stone"", a type of iron ore. The science of electromagnetic phenomena is defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the Lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as elements of one phenomenon.The electromagnetic force plays a major role in determining the internal properties of most objects encountered in daily life. Ordinary matter takes its form as a result of intermolecular forces between individual molecules in matter. Electrons are bound by electromagnetic wave mechanics into orbitals around atomic nuclei to form atoms, which are the building blocks of molecules. This governs the processes involved in chemistry, which arise from interactions between the electrons of neighboring atoms, which are in turn determined by the interaction between electromagnetic force and the momentum of the electrons.There are numerous mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field. In classical electrodynamics, electric fields are described as electric potential and electric current in Ohm's law, magnetic fields are associated with electromagnetic induction and magnetism, and Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated and altered by each other and by charges and currents.The theoretical implications of electromagnetism, in particular the establishment of the speed of light based on properties of the ""medium"" of propagation (permeability and permittivity), led to the development of special relativity by Albert Einstein in 1905.Although electromagnetism is considered one of the four fundamental forces, at high energy the weak force and electromagnetism are unified. In the history of the universe, during the quark epoch, the electroweak force split into the electromagnetic and weak forces.