A finite element analysis of critical state models for type

... The Bean type critical state model requires the current density not to exceed some critical value, which is a difficult constraint to attain in 3D numerical analysis. To avoid this difficulty we employ a penalty method which approximates the non-smooth energy with a smooth energy so that the electri ...

... The Bean type critical state model requires the current density not to exceed some critical value, which is a difficult constraint to attain in 3D numerical analysis. To avoid this difficulty we employ a penalty method which approximates the non-smooth energy with a smooth energy so that the electri ...

Lecture Notes 11: Potentials and Fields, Potential Formulation, Gauge Transformations, Jefimenko's Equations, Feynman-Heaviside Eqns for Moving Point Charge

... (Most useful in electrodynamics) t Ludwig Valentin Lorenz, Danish physicist – a contemporary of J.C. Maxwell, ca. 1867 – not to be confused with Hendrick A. Lorentz, Dutch physicist & contemporary of Albert Einstein… {See/read J.D. Jackson & L.B. Okun’s “Historical Roots of Gauge Invariance” Rev. M ...

... (Most useful in electrodynamics) t Ludwig Valentin Lorenz, Danish physicist – a contemporary of J.C. Maxwell, ca. 1867 – not to be confused with Hendrick A. Lorentz, Dutch physicist & contemporary of Albert Einstein… {See/read J.D. Jackson & L.B. Okun’s “Historical Roots of Gauge Invariance” Rev. M ...

The relationship between field-aligned currents and the auroral

... with plentiful information on characteristics of the field-aligned currents and their relationship to both auroral intensity and auroral electrojet flow. Incoherent scatter radars at auroral latitudes can also determine simultaneously most of the electromagnetic properties in the ionosphere includin ...

... with plentiful information on characteristics of the field-aligned currents and their relationship to both auroral intensity and auroral electrojet flow. Incoherent scatter radars at auroral latitudes can also determine simultaneously most of the electromagnetic properties in the ionosphere includin ...

Non-collinear Magnetoelectronics Abstract

... A phase diﬀerence in the superconducting order parameter is equivalent to a supercurrent. Analogously, gradients in the magnetic order parameter induce persistent spin currents. The ground state is equivalent to a configuration in which these equilibrium spin currents vanish. These arguments can be ...

... A phase diﬀerence in the superconducting order parameter is equivalent to a supercurrent. Analogously, gradients in the magnetic order parameter induce persistent spin currents. The ground state is equivalent to a configuration in which these equilibrium spin currents vanish. These arguments can be ...

as a PDF

... 2.1.1 General mechanisms for superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Bio-structures as defect regions or large ~ regions of quantum critical superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Superconductivity at magnetic f ...

... 2.1.1 General mechanisms for superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Bio-structures as defect regions or large ~ regions of quantum critical superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Superconductivity at magnetic f ...

# Magnetic monopole

A magnetic monopole is a hypothetical elementary particle in particle physics that is an isolated magnet with only one magnetic pole (a north pole without a south pole or vice versa). In more technical terms, a magnetic monopole would have a net ""magnetic charge"". Modern interest in the concept stems from particle theories, notably the grand unified and superstring theories, which predict their existence.Magnetism in bar magnets and electromagnets does not arise from magnetic monopoles. There is no conclusive experimental evidence that magnetic monopoles exist at all in our universe.Some condensed matter systems contain effective (non-isolated) magnetic monopole quasi-particles, or contain phenomena that are mathematically analogous to magnetic monopoles.