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Transcript
Review the Animal Kingdom
• 4 Major Characteristics?
• Multicellular
• Eukaryotic
• Heterotrophs
• Cells lack cell walls
7 Essential Functions?
• Feeding
• Response
• Respiration
• Movement
• Circulation
• Reproduction
• Excretion
Trends in Animal Evolution
• Cell specialization and levels of organization?
• Early development?
• Body symmetry?
• Cephalization?
• Coelom?
Hard Shells
The Anatomy of a
Sponge
Water flow
Osculum
Central cavity
Pores
Collar Cell
Spicule
Pore cell
Pore
Epidermal cell
Archaeocyte
Cnidarians have two body forms
Polyp - stationary,
vase-shaped
Medusa - swimming,
cup-shaped
Examples: hydra, coral,
sea anemone
Examples: jellyfish,
portuguese man of war
Ecology of Sponges
1.Ideal habitats for marine animals
such as snails, sea stars, sea
cucumbers, and shrimp
2.Mutually beneficial relationships
with bacteria, algae and plant-like
protists
Ecology of Cnidarians
• A. Source of new drugs/chemicals sunscreen
855
• B. Provide habitats for marine organisms
• C. Source of food for other organisms (like sea
turtles)
• D. Symbiotic relationships with other
organisms
3 Groups of Worms?
• Flatworms
• Roundworms
• Segmented Worms
• What do all 3 groups have in common?
– Bilateral symmetry, cephalization, sexual
reproduction, true organs,
Flatworm adaptation?
• Simplest animals to have bilateral
symmetry and cephalization.
Roundworm Adaptation?
First animals to have a one way digestive
system with mouth and anus
First animals to have a fluid filled body
cavity called a pseudocoelom- “false body
cavity”
Segmented Worm Adaptation?
First animals to have true circulatory system
and coelom – body cavity.
Examples of Mollusks?
Major Advancement?
• Well developed nervous system
4 parts to body?
1. Foot2. Mantle (covering) –
3. Shell –
4. Visceral mass –
• muscular and modified
in each group: used for
crawling, burrowing, or
may form tentacles for
capturing prey
• thin layer that covers
most of the body and
secretes the shell
• made of calcium
carbonate – for
protection
• area where internal
organs are located.
Classification of Mollusks?
• Classified into three common groups
based on shell presence and type and
foot modification
1. Gastropods
2. Bivalves
3. Cephalopods
Echinoderms’ Adaptations
Water Vascular System
• Radial symmetry
• Spiny Skin
Types of Echinoderms
•
•
•
•
•
Sea Stars
Brittle Stars
Sea Urchins
Sand Dollars
Sea Cucumbers
Name characteristics of the
arthropod phyla:
•
•
•
•
•
Jointed appendages
Body segments
Exoskeleton
Bilateral symmetry
Reproduce sexually
5 classes of arthropods
Millipedes
Arachnids
Crustaceans
Centipedes
Insects
Why are insects so successful?
•
•
•
•
•
The ability to fly
Rapid reproduction
Waterproof exoskeleton
Variety of food sources
Small size
A dramatic life form change from
larvae to adult stages
Metamorphosis
Animal Behaviors
II. Innate Behavior – behavior that doesn’t
depend on learning experience
Examples: babies cry, whales swim, Frogs
jump.
Innate behaviors
III. Learned behavior – behavior that is
learned from experience or observation
ex: language in humans, reading, a dog
learning tricks, using tools
Learned Behaviors
I. Survival Behaviors
A. Obtaining Food: Hunting, Scavenging,
Gathering
B. Predator/Prey Relationships – Predators
hunt/ Prey have behaviors to avoid being
eaten
1. Camouflage – Prey blends in to avoid
being eaten
2. Defense - tools/behaviors – ex: porcupine
quills, skunk’s odor
3. Warning Coloration – bright
colors/patterns warns predators of toxins
or poisons
IV. Seasonal behavior – behaviors
that animals exhibit during certain
times of the year
A. Migration – long distance travel to find food,
water, safe nesting ground
B. Hibernation – period of inactivity and decreased
body temperature – survive on stored body fat
C. Estivation – reduced activity in summer –
common in desert animals
V. Communication – When animals
signal other animals
A. Purpose: courtship (trying to find a mate),
defending territory, warning other
members of species of danger, where to
find food
B. Types of Communication:
1. Pheremones – chemical communication – usually
smells. Ex: dog urinates to mark territory
2. Hearing – sound communication. Ex: whales click,
birds sing, dogs bark and howl
3. Sight – visual communication. Ex: body language in
humans, color displays of birds, lizards open a flap of
colored skin on the neck
4. Touch – physical communication. Ex: bees touch
antennae, primates groom