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Transcript
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Animalia
Evolutionary trends among
organisms within the
Kingdom Animalia
What is an animal?
•
•
•
•
•
Multicellular
Eukaryotic
Heterotrophic
Lack cell walls
Vertebrate
– Backbone
• Invertebrate
– No Backbone
Evolutionary Trends in Animals
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Development
Symmetry
Segments
Cephalization
Coelom (body
cavity)
Development
• Gametes (sex cells)
– Unite to form Zygote
• Blastula
– Zygote that has divided
and began to hollow out
• Protosome
– Mouth develops first
• Deuterostome
– Anus develops first
Germ Layers of Development
1. Endoderm – inner layer
• Leads to development of
digestive and respiratory
system
2. Mesoderm – middle layer
• Leads to development of
muscles, circulatory,
reproductive and excretory
systems
Germ Layers of Development
3. Ectoderm – outer layer
• Leads to development of
sense organs, nerves, and
skin
• Cells in each layer can
be traced to later
development
• Implication  Stem Cell
Treatment
Symmetry
Types of Symmetry
1. Radial
•
body parts arranged
around a central
point
2. Bilateral
•
divided into 2 equal
halves
Symmetry
Symmetry Terms
1.
Anterior – towards head
2.
Posterior – towards bottom
3.
Ventral – towards front
4.
Dorsal – towards back
Identify the Symmetry Terms
Front
Segments and Cephalization
• Segmentation
– Repeating body segments
– More important for
invertebrates
• Cephalization
– Concentration of sense
organs and nerves at front
of animal
Coelom
• Coelom
– Fluid filled body cavity that houses internal organs
– Acoelomate – no body cavity (simple animals)
– Coelomate – true body cavity (complex animals)
Coelom
No
Coelom
Internal
Organ
Coelom in Humans
Importance of Evolutionary Trends
Evolutionary Trend
Protostome or Deuterostome
Importance
More complex animals are
deuterostomes
Specialized cells and organs (ie. Observed in complex animals
circulatory, respiratory, etc)
Cephalization
Can responds and react to
surroundings better
Segmentation
Allows invertebrates in increase in
size
Coelom
Allows for space for specialized
organs
Invertebrates -vs- Vertebrates
Evolutionary Trends in
Invertebrates
Echinoderms
Annelids
Chordates
Arthropods
Mollusks
Radial
Symmetry
Roundworms
Flatworms
Pseudocoelom
Cnidarians
Radial
Symmetry
Sponges
Tissues
Multicellularity
Single-celled
ancestor
Deuterostome
Development
Three Germ Layers;
Bilateral Symmetry
Coelom
Protostome
Development
Evolutionary Trends in
Invertebrates
1. Feeding and
Digestion
2. Circulation
3. Movement and
Support
Feeding and Digestions
1. Intracellular
Digestions
•
•
Individual cells break
down material and it
diffuses to other cells
Usually only 1
opening
Feeding and Digestion
2. Extracellular
Digestions
•
•
Digestive system
responsible for
breaking down food,
not individual cells
2 openings
Circulation
1. Open System
•
•
Blood is partially
contained
Observed in
Arthropods and
mollusks
Circulation
2. Closed System
•
•
Heat or “heartlike” organ pumps
blood through
vessels
Larger, more
active animals
Movement and Support
1. Hydrostatic Skeleton
•
•
Use fluid force to move body parts
Worms
2. Exoskeleton
•
•
Hard covering
Spiders
3. Endoskeleton
•
•
Support found on inside the body
Sea stars
Movement and Support
THE END