History of Ocean Exploration A timeline of contributions Something to consider… • Think back to the beginning of humanity. Think of all possible reasons why humans would start exploring the oceans (Think about why we do so today). List all reasons the class comes up with. ~25,000 yrs ago - Polynesians • Polynesians began colonizing Pacific (Samoa, Hawaii…) by knowledge of waves, bird flight, stars, smell of water, temp, salinity, color, and marine life Photos courtesy of the Polynesian Culture Center ~300 BC - Greeks • inverted kettles trapped air to dive for sponges Alexander the Great Diving Photo courtesy of NOAA ~300 BC - Aristotle • 1st marine biologist • “Father of natural history” • He identified a variety of marine species such as crustaceans, echinoderms, mollusks, fish and mammals • Identified differences between oviparous and viviparous The School of Athens by Raffaello Sanzio 1509, showing Plato (left) and Aristotle (right) 800- 1000 A.D. Viking Exploration • 15- 30 m ships of oak powered by sails and oars • Explored Europe, Asia and North America • Reached North America 500 years before Columbus ~1400-1600 - Renaissance • 1492 Columbus “discovers” America • 1519 Ferdinand Magellan to sail around world and contributed to charting the oceans Map courtesy of Encyclopedia Britannica 1690 – Edmond Halley (U.K.) • diving bell takes divers 50 feet underwater • Suggested that the age of the oceans could be determined by the rate at which rivers carry salt to the ocean Photo courtesy of National Maritime Museum, London Mid-1700’s: Captain James Cook / Benjamin Franklin • Cook: Observations led to the discovery that vitamin C prevents scurvy and mapped islands in the South Pacific. • Franklin: noticed that mail delivery from Europe to the colonies took longer than mail from the colonies to Europe. Learned of a water current that moved up the coast from the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf Stream). 1800 – Robert Fulton (U.S.) • Submarine Nautilus tested in France Photo courtesy of National Maritime Museum, London 1831 – Voyage of the Beagle • Naturalist Charles Darwin sailed around the world on HMS Beagle • Theory of evolution by natural selection Map courtesy of Wikimedia Commons 1872-1876 – Challenger expedition • 1st expedition to collect oceanic species from around the world • Beginning of modern oceanography Map courtesy of TAMU Challenger contributions • Water samples • Sediment samples • Recorded temperature and pressure at varying depths • Discovered, described and catalogued 4,700 new species of marine organisms • Collected data on tides, currents, and wave action • Director: Sir Charles Thompson “ founder of oceanography” 1930 – Otis Barton (U.S.) • Barton designed the bathysphere, and with naturalist Dr. William Beebe dove 1428 feet near Bermuda Photo courtesy of Wildlife Conservation Society 1943 – Jacques-Yves Cousteau (France) • Cousteau improved the aqualung and invented modern scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus) • Marine conservationist Photo courtesy of NOAA 1960 – Jacques Piccard (Switzerland) • Piccard designed the bathyscaphe Trieste, and with Lt. Don Walsh, reached the deepest point in the ocean, 35,000 feet in the Mariana Trench Photo courtesy of National Maritime Museum, London Map courtesy of NOAA 1977 – Alvin • Carries scientists to observe deep ocean hydrothermal vents for the first time Photo courtesy of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute http://www.whoi.edu/home/interactive/alvin/ 1979 – Dr. Sylvia Earle (U.S.) • Dr. Earle, in a Jim suit, rides the submersible Star II to the seafloor, 1250 feet deep near Oahu, Hawaii Photo courtesy of Al Giddings Images, Inc Photo courtesy of Al Giddings Images, Inc 1984 – DeepRover • This single person submersible was launched, diving 3280 feet Photo courtesy of Marine Technology Society 1999 – DeepWorker • This single person submersible allows pilots to explore U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries Robert “Bob” Ballard • Most remembered for his discoveries of old ship wrecks of the RMS Titanic, Battleship Bismarck, USS Yorktown and most recently John F. Kennedy’s PT109. • He is a former commander in the US Navy and is currently a professor of oceanography at the University of Rhode Island Today - Marine labs • Many marine labs established in 1800’s and thrive today: – Woods Hole, MA http://www.whoi.edu/ – Scripps (CA) http://www.sio.ucsd.edu/ -Harte Research Institute (TX) http://www.harteresearchinstitute.org/ - Virginia Institute Marine Science http://www.vims.edu/ Bob Ballard • Under water discovery Video • After watching the video complete a quick write in your composition book or a blank sheet of paper • Answer: – Why do you think we haven’t explored the oceans more in depth? – What is the importance of exploring the oceans? – In what way(s) do you think we’ve made a sufficient progress throughout history of ocean exploration?