Unit 2: Evolution Learning Goal 1: Examine the history of the development of the theory of evolution. Scientific Theory A well supported testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) First attended the University of Edinburgh to become a surgeon. Transferred to Cambridge to study theology and become an Anglican priest. Graduated at the age of 22 (1831) and joined the HMS Beagle. – – Father did not want him to join the ship because it might lead him away from a future in the clergy. Started as the captains companion and later became the ship’s naturalist. Five-Year Voyage HMS Beagle http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php www.darwinday.org/englishL/life/beagle.html www.darwinday.org/englishL/life/beagle.ht Used by permission of Darwin Day Celebration (at DarwinDay.org), 2006 I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term Natural Selection. —Charles Darwin from "The Origin of Species" http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.ph Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College. Darwin’s Observations Patterns of Diversity – Darwin observed similar animals that were diverse in their characteristics. Darwin’s Observations Fossils – – a large part of the puzzle. A fossil is preserved remains of ancient organisms. Many animals found in fossils were very similar to modern day organisms. Galapagos Islands Darwin observed that the characteristics of many plants and animals varied noticeably among the different islands. Galapagos Islands Each island had a very different climate. – The smallest, lowest islands were hot, dry, and nearly barren. – Sparse vegetation Higher islands had greater rainfall. Different assortment of plants and animals. Island Tortoises Darwin found that the shape of the shell of the tortoise varied from island to island. – You could use the shape of the shell to determine where the tortoise had come form. Galapagos Iguanas Galapagos Iguanas The iguanas seemed to adapt to their environments. Those that lived near trees had feet and claws adapted for climbing in soft tissue. Those that lived on rocky cliffs had feet and claws adapted to climbing on rocky cliffs. Darwin’s Finches Darwin found finches around the islands that had beak types that were specific to the types of food available. that soft *Those with big thick beaks ate seeds were available. *Those with smaller beaks ate the flesh of fruit or insects. Darwin’s Finches Origin of Evolutionary Thought Charles Darwin developed the central idea of evolution by natural selection, but others before and during his time also built essential parts of the theory. James Hutton 1785 Proposes that Earth is shaped by forces that took place over extremely long periods of time. Proposed Earth to be millions of years old. Thomas Malthus Human populations will grow faster than the space and food supplies needed to sustain it. – Competition 1798 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck 1809 Publishes his hypothesis of the inheritance of acquired traits. – – Ideas were flawed. The first to propose a mechanism explaining how organisms change over time. Charles Lyell Publishes Principles of Geology Explains that processes occurring now have shaped Earth’s geological features over long periods of time. 1833 Alfred Wallace Independently drew the same conclusion as Darwin. Evolution by Natural Selection Conferred with Darwin about ideas. 1858 On the Origin of Species Published in 1859 Proposed a mechanism for evolution called Natural Selection – – Organisms changed over time as a result of the change to their environment. Those best suited for their environment would survive and pass on their traits.