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Transcript
Essentials of Ecology 3rd. Ed.
Chap. 2 Ecology’s evolutionary
backdrop
鄭先祐 (Ayo)
國立臺南大學 環境與生態學院
生物科技學系 生態學 (2008)
Chap. 2 Ecology’s evolutionary
backdrop
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.1 introduction
2.2 evolution by natural selection
2.3 evolution within species
2.4 the ecology of speciation
2.5 effects of climatic change
2.6 effects of continental drift
2.7 convergents and parallels
2
2.1 introduction
• Evolution: phenomenon and mechanism
• Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
3
2.2 evolution by natural selection
• Hardy-Weinberg principle
• Darwinism = isolation + natural selection
• Neutralism = neutral mutation + genetic drift
4
2.3 Evolution within species
• 2.3.1 Geographic variation within species
• 2.3.2 Variation within a species with
manmade selection pressures
• 2.3.3 Evolution and coevolution
5
2.3.1 Geographic variation within species
• Fig. 2.2 common garden experiments
6
• Fig. 2.3 those from the low elevation site had
significantly better water use efficiency as well
as having both taller and broader rosettes.
7
• Fig 2.4 (a) map of
the site chosen.
• (b) a vertical
transect across the
study area.
• (C) the mean
length of stolons
produced in the
experimental
garden from
samples taken from
the transect.
8
• Fig. 2.5 相距1000公里遠,發芽率(%)才有顯著差
異。Chamaecrista fasciculata populaitons
9
• Fig. 2.2 (b) reciprocal transplant experiments
10
11
• Fig. 2.6 plants of white clover (苜蓿)
12
• Fig 2.7 two males and a female guppies Poecillia
reticulata. Where guppies have been free from
predators, the males are brightly decorated with
different colored spots.
13
Fig 2.8(a)
• R= with weak predators
• K= controlled pond
• C= with dangerous predators.
14
• Fig. 2.8 (b)
• c= with the dangerous predator
• X= no predator
r= with weak predator
15
• Fig. 2.8 (c)
• c= with the dangerous predator
• X= no predator
r= with weak predator
16
2.3.2 manmade selection pressures
• Industrial melanism
• Fig. 2.9 sites in Britain
and ireland where the
frequencies of the pale
and melanic forms of
Biston betularia
補充資料:天擇的範例:
peppered moths (ppt檔案)
17
• Fig. 2.10 change in the frequency of the
carbonaria form of the peppered moth in the
Manchester area since 1950.
18
• Fig. 2.11 the grass colonizes land heavily contaminated
with Zinc on old mines.
19
2.3.3 Evolution and coevolution
• Evolution
• Coevolution (chap. 8)
– Mutualists
– Pollinators and their plants,
– Leguminous plants and their nitrogen-fixing
bacteria
20
2.4 the ecology of speciation
• 2.4.1 What do we mean by a ‘species’?
• 2.4.2 islands and speciation
21
2.4.1 what do we mean by a ‘species’?
• species
– Biospecies
– Typo-species
• speciation
– Orthodox speciation
– Allopatric speciation
– Sympatric speciation
– Radiated speciation (radiation)
• Evolution in sea gulls (海鷗)
22
• Fig. 2.13 two
species of gull
have diverged
from a common
ancestry.
23
2.4.2 islands and
speciation
• Galapagos finches
24
• Fig. 2.15 poorly dispersing have a higher proportion of
endemic species.
25
2.5 Effects of climatic change on the
evolution and distribution of species
• 16 glacial cycles in the Pleistocene, each
lasting for up to 125,000 years (Fig.2.16a)
• Each cold (glacial) phase may have lasted for
as long as 50,000-100,000 years,
• with brief intervals of only 10,000-20,000
years when the temperatures rose to, or
above, those of today.
26
27
• Fig. 2.17 the elevation ranges of 10 species of woody
plant from the mountains of the Sheep range during the
last glaciation (dots) and at present (solid line)
28
• Fig. 2.18 (a) the present-day distribution of tropical
forest in South America.
• (b) the possible distribution of tropical forest refuges at
the time when the last glaciation was at its peak.
29
2.6 continental drift
• Fig. 2.19 (a) changes in temperature in the
North sea over the past 65million years.
30
• Fig. 2.19
31
• Fig. 2.19
32
• Fig. 2.20 (a)
33
非洲
非洲
南美洲
澳洲
澳洲
• Fig. 2.20 (a)
34
• Rhea (南美洲)
• Ostrich (非洲)
35
2.7 convergents and parallels
• Convergent evolution
– Bird and bat wings are a classic example
• Parallel evolution
– Placental and marsupial mammals
Fig. 2.21 convergent evolution
36
• Fig. 2.22
parallel
evolution
37
Boxes
• 2.1 Historical landmarks: a brief history of
the study of diversity
• 2.2 Topical ECOncerns: deep sea vent
communities at risk
38
Questions
1. Is sexual selection, as practiced by
guppies different from or just part of
natural selection?
2. The process of evolution can be
interpreted as optimizing the fit between
organisms and their environment or as
narrowing and constraining what they
can do. Discuss whether there is a
conflict between these interpretations.
39
問題與討論
[email protected]
Ayo 台南站 http://mail.nutn.edu.tw/~hycheng/
國立臺南大學 環境與生態學院 Ayo 院長的個人網站