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Fig. 16-5 The force between two
molecules (blue curve) is zero at a
separation r = ro, where the
potential energy (red curve) is a
minimum. The force is attractive
when the separation is greater
than r and repulsive when the
separation is less than ro.
Fig. 16-6
of the cubic
structure of
Fig. 16-8 Elastic
collision of a molecule
with an idealized
container wall. The
velocity component
parallel to the wall does
not change; the
perpendicular to the
wall reverses direction.
The speed v does not
Fig. 16-9 A
molecule moving
toward the wall
with speed vx
collides with the
area A during the
time interval dt
only if it is within
a distance vx dt
of the wall at the
beginning of the
interval. All such
molecules are
contained within a
volume A vx dt.
Fig. 16-10 In a time dt a molecule with a radius r will collide
with any other molecule within a cylindrical volume of
radius 2r and length v dt.
Fig. 16-11 When an amount of
heat dQ is added to (a) a
constant volume of
monatomic ideal gas
molecules, (b) the total
translational kinetic energy
increases by dKtr = dQ, and
the temperature increases
by dT = dQ / nCv.