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Chapter 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life
Evolution - the processes that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest forms to the vast
diversity that characterizes it today
Early Philosophy
Socrates and Plato
Old Testament
Natural theology - a philosophy dedicated to discovering the Creator’s plan by studying nature
Carolus Linnaeus - Swedish physician and botanist
Georges Cuvier – Anatomist and Paleontology (Fig 22.x2)
Paleontology - the study of fossils
Fossils - relics or impressions of organisms from the past, mineralized in rock
Sedimentary rock - formed from the sand and mud that settle to the bottom of
seas, lakes and marshes (Fig 22.3)
Catastrophism - speculation that each boundary between strata corresponded in time to a
catastrophe, such as a flood or drought that had destroyed many of the species
living there at that time
James Hutton
Gradualism - profound change is the cumulative product of slow but continuous
Charles Lyell (Fig 22.x3)
Uniformitarianism - geological processes have not changed throughout Earth’s history
Jean Baptiste Lamarck (Fig 22.x4)
First proposed evolution
Use and disuse
Inheritance of acquired characteristics
Alfred Wallace (Fig 22.x5)
Charles Darwin
The Voyage of HMS Beagle (Fig 22.5)
Galápagos finches (Fig 22.6)
On the Origin of the Species by Natural Selection, November 24, 1859
Descent with Modification
Organisms descend from some unknown prototype that lived in the remote
past. As the descendents of that inaugural organism spilled into
various habitats over millions of years, they accumulated diverse
modifications, or adaptations, that fit them to specific ways of life.
(Fig 22.7)
Natural Selection (Fig 22.12 & 22.13)
Natural selection is differential success in reproduction
Natural selection occurs through an interaction between the environment
and variability inherent among the individual organisms making up
a population
The product of natural selection is the adaptation of populations of
organisms to their environment
Artificial Selection
Evidence of Evolution
The fossil record
Comparative Anatomy
Homology - similarity in characteristics resulting from common ancestry
Homologous structures (Fig 22.14)
Vestigial organs
Comparative Embryology
Molecular Biology (Table 22.1)