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Transcript
Sustainable Sweden
H.E. Ingrid Iremark
Ambassador of Sweden to Canada
Earth Day, 22 April 2008
Ottawa
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Sweden – general facts
•
Inhabitants: 9,0 million
•
Area: 450 000 km²
•
Capital: Stockholm
•
Major cities: Göteborg, Malmö
•
Language: Swedish
•
Form of government: Parliamentary democracy
•
Government: 4-party majority coalition since October
2006 (Centre-Right)
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Arctic circle
Churchill, Manitoba
Ottawa, Ontario
Sweden is a Northern country…
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Canada and Sweden
•
Similarly to Canada, Sweden’s primary industries, such as wood, paper, steel
and manufactured products, have been important in the development of the
country’s economy.
•
Like Canada, Sweden is a technically well-advanced nation with a highly
skilled work force.
•
Both countries are in the forefront of many high-tech industries, such as
telecom and biotechnology.
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
How did it start?
• UN Conference on the Environment in Stockholm 1972
• Oil crisis 1973
• Nuclear power referendum 1980
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
1999 – turn of the Millennium
The Generation Goal
“The overall aim is
to hand over to the next generation a
society in which the major environmental
problems have been solved.”
The Swedish Parliament
(Riksdagen) 1999
Unanimous decision
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
The basic principle is to integrate…
- ecological
- social and
- economic
…sustainability
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Sweden’s environment policy
• Based on sixteen environmental quality objectives for different
areas
• Adopted by the Swedish Parliament in 1999 and confirmed in
2005
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
The Environmental Quality Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Reduced Climate Impact
Clean Air
Natural Acidification Only
A Non-Toxic Environment
A Protective Ozone Layer
A Safe Radiation Environment
Zero Eutrophication
Flourishing Lakes and Streams
Good-Quality Groundwater
A Balanced Marine Environment,
Areas and Archipelagos
Thriving Wetlands
Sustainable Forests
A Varied Agricultural Landscape
A Magnificent Mountain Landscape
A Good Built Environment
A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Flourishing Coastal
A continuous process
Strategy
Measures
Objectives
Adjustments
Monitoring
Evaluation
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Sweden’s Environmental Objectives, De Facto 2007
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Development of Sweden’s
climate strategy
•
1988
The first climate policy objective: carbon dioxide emissions
•
1991
Addition: all greenhouse gases
•
1993
•
2002Ratifies The Kyoto Protocol
•
2002
The current Swedish climate policy was adopted
•
2008
Climate Bill 2008, will be presented in Fall of 2008
A national climate strategy in line with the objectives of the
Climate Convention
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Climate issues - Sweden & Canada
Sweden
Canada
GDP/capita (USD)
30 400
31 500
CO2/capita (tons)
6,0
23,7
56 (83)
758 (340)
Difference of CO2-emissions between 1971 and 2004
-33%
+123%
CO2-emissions since 1990 (“national” Kyoto-target)
-8,7%* (+4%)
+27,9% (-6%)
Total energy supply - fossil fuels (% of TES)
35,9
76,2
Total energy supply - nuclear energy (% of TES)
34,1
7,8
Total energy supply - renewable energy (% of TES)
28,9
15,9
CO2-emissions in million tons, 2004 and in 1971
Sources: OECD, Environment Canada and IEA, data are from 2002-2004, *=2006
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Energy taxes in Sweden
• 1991
tax
Sweden introduced a carbon dioxide tax and
• 2001
The great green tax reform was introduced
• 2005
A new green tax reform is focusing on the
transport sector
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
sulphur
Estimated emissions in Sweden
- with and without CO2 tax
Mtonnes
60
55
Difference of app. 18%
50
45
40
1990
Emissions without CO2 tax
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
2002
2009
Emissions with CO2 tax
Sweden’s Prime Minister, Fredrik Reinfeldt in Tokyo 17 April 2008
•
…it is possible to combine economic development with a
stabilization – and decrease – of emissions.
•
I’m not especially fond of taxes. But I’m convinced that they can
make an important difference if you want to promote one type
of behavior over another.
•
New green technology is necessary, but it will not be enough.
•
…international action is necessary.
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Sweden’s decoupling of emissions and growth
Graph shows only the period 1990 - 2003
Source: Sweden’s Ministry for the Environment
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
•
Steady increase in GDP of about 44%
(1990-2006)
•
Industrial production increased by more
than 50%
•
Average purchasing power grew by more
than 15%
•
GHG emissions decreased by 8,7%
(1990-2006)
Actions and initiatives in climate work
•
1 billion SEK (171 million CAD) to climate and energy initiatives
•
1 billion SEK for climate and environmental research
•
Increased energy and climate taxes by 3 billion SEK (514 million CAD) in Budget Bill 2008
•
Share of “green” cars in public procurement - and lease - to increase from 75 to 85%.
•
Share of “green” emergency vehicles (ambulances, fire trucks, police cruisers etc) should increase to a
minimum of 25%.
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Climate and Energy within the EU
• Sweden plays an active role in the EU’s
climate and energy policies.
• EU will reduce emissions by 20% by 2020
(compared to 1990).
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Environment rankings
Climate Change Performance Index,
ranking 56 countries
Environmental Performance Index,
ranking 149 countries
Newsweek Index of Environmental Performance,
ranking 134 countries
EPI 2008
Score
1.
Switzerland
95,5
64,5
2.
Sweden
Iceland
62,6
3.
---
---
---
53.
Canada
---
CCPI 2008
Score
1.
Sweden
65,6
2.
Germany
3.
Newsweek 2008
Score
1.
Sweden
94,8
93,1
2.
Switzerland
94,7
Norway
93,1
3.
Norway
94,5
---
---
---
---
---
---
37,6
12.
Canada
86,6
23.
Canada
86,8
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
55.
USA
33,4
39.
USA
81,0
66.
USA
77,0
56.
Saudi Arabia
30,0
---
---
---
---
---
---
149.
Niger
39,1
134.
China
No data
Germanwatch 2007
Yale University & Columbia University
2008
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
Newsweek, 14 April 2008
The Government Commission
on Sustainable Development
•
Focus on Climate Change
•
Promote efforts across sectors, adopting an international perspective
•
Cooperation for climate initiatives between business, politics and science, as illustrated by some of its
members:
- Fredrik Reinfeldt, Prime Minister, Chair
- Leif Johansson, CEO & President of Volvo (Buses/truck company)
- Lars G Josefsson, CEO & President of Vattenfall (Hydro/energy company)
- Annika Helker Lundström, CEO of the Swedish Recycling Industries' Association
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa
For further information
•
Embassy of Sweden, Ottawa:
•
Sweden’s portal:
•
Government of Sweden:
•
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency:
•
Swedish Environmental Objectives Portal:
www.swedishembassy.ca
www.sweden.se
www.sweden.gov.se
www.naturvardsverket.se
www.miljomal.nu
Em bassy of Swede n, O ttawa