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Transcript
Aging of the skin results in a loss of elasticity
and the appearance of wrinkles
University of Baghdad
College of Nursing
Department of Basic Medical Sciences
Overview of
Anatomy and Physioloy –II
Second Year Students
Asaad Ismail Ahmad , Ph.D.
Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
[email protected]
2012 - 2013
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - II
Brief Contents
1- Cardiovascular System
2- Blood
3- Lymphatic System
4- Urinary System
5- Male Reproductive System
6- Female Reproductive System
7- Sensory Function
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
College of Nursing – University of Baghdad / 2012 – 2013
[email protected]
Text book
Martini FH. Fundamentals of Anatomy and
Physiology, 5th ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey,
2001.
References:
1.Barrett KE, Barman SM, Boitano S, Brooks HL. Ganong's Review of Medical
Physiology, 23rd ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, 2010.
2.Drake RL, Vogl W, Mitchell AWM. Gray's Anatomy for Students. Elsevier,
Philadelphia, 2005.
3.Goldberger ,E. 1975.A Primer of Water Electrolyte and Acid-Base Syndromes. 5th ed.,
Lea and Febiger ,Philadelphia.
4. Martini, FH and Welch K. Applications Manual Fundamentals of Anatomy and
Physiology,4th ed., Prentice Hall, NewJersey, 1998.
5.Maxwell, MH and Kleeman CR. 1980.Clinical Disorders of Fluid and
Electrolyte Metabolism. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
6.McKinley M, and O'Loughlin VD. Human Anatomy, McGraw Hill, Boston,
2006.
7.Nutrition Foundation.1984.Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 5th ed.,
Nutrition Foundation, Inc , Washington, D.C.
8.Vander A, Sherman J, Luciano D., Human Physiology, 7th ed., McGraw Hill,
Boston, 1998.
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
Contents:
1. Anatomy of Lymphatic System
2. Physiology of Lymphatic System
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
College of Nursing – University of Baghdad / 2012 – 2013
[email protected]
8th LECTURE
Physiology of Lymphatic System
( Immune System).
1. Functions of Lymphatic System
2. Nonspecific Defenses
3. Specific Defenses
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
College of Nursing – University of Baghdad / 2012 – 2013
[email protected]
Wood engraving of Louis Pasteur watching Joseph Meister receive
the rabies vaccine. [From Harper’s Weekly 29:836; courtesy of the
National Library of Medicine.]
Nobel Prizes for immunologic research
Year Recipient Country Research
1901 Emil von Behring Germany Serum antitoxins
1905 Robert Koch Germany Cellular immunity to tuberculosis
1908 Elie Metchnikoff Russia Role of phagocytosis (Metchnikoff) and antitoxins (Ehrlich) in
immunity Paul Ehrlich Germany
1913 Charles Richet France Anaphylaxis
1919 Jules Border Belgium Complement-mediated bacteriolysis
1930 Karl Landsteiner United States Discovery of human blood groups
1951 Max Theiler South Africa Development of yellow fever vaccine
1957 Daniel Bovet Switzerland Antihistamines
1960 F. Macfarlane Burnet Australia Discovery of acquired immunological Peter Medawar
Great Britain tolerance
1972 Rodney R. Porter Great Britain Chemical structure of antibodies Gerald M. Edelman
United States
1977 Rosalyn R. Yalow United States Development of radioimmunoassay
1980 George Snell United States Major histocompatibility complex Jean Daussct France
Baruj Benacerraf United States
1984 Cesar Milstein Great Britain Monoclonal antibody Georges E. Köhler Germany
Niels K. Jerne Denmark Immune regulatory theories
1987 Susumu Tonegawa Japan Gene rearrangement in antibody production
1991 E. Donnall Thomas United States Transplantation immunology Joseph Murray United
States
1996 Peter C. Doherty Australia Role of major histocompatibility complex
Rolf M. Zinkernagel Switzerland in antigen recognition by by T cells
Characteristic “butterfly” rash over the cheeks of a
young girl with systemic lupus erythematosus. P.467
Acute tonsillitis
EDEMA
EDEMA :
1- Accumulation of excess
Fluid in fluid compartment.
Or :
2- Chronic Swelling of a Part due to
Accumulation of Interstitial Fluid (Lymph)
Secondary to Obstruction of Lymphatic
Vessels or Lymph Nodes.
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
Physiology of Lymphatic System
FUNCTIONS OF LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 752
1- Production, maintenance and distribution
of lymphocyte in a balance ratio
2- To return tissue fluid to the blood to
maintain blood volume.
3- To protect ( immune) the body against
pathogens and other foreign material.
4- Distribution of hormones, nutrients and
waste products from their tissues of
origin to the general circulation.
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
ONE OF THE GREATEST POINT IN MEDICAL CRISIS IS CONTROL
OF IMMUNE SYSTEM ****
There are two ways to control immune system
1- PHYSIOLOGICAL CONTROL (immune modulators
to restore cell component)
2- MEDICAL CONTROL
The first one is not yet enough, therefore we need
to look for the possibility of restoring
The physiological control of immune system,
through the possibility of using immune
modulators to restore cell component which
Could maintain the homeostasis power of the cells
and then healthy body.
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
IMMUNITY
Immunity may be defined as the ability to destroy
pathogens or other foreign material and to
prevent further cases of certain infectious
diseases. Immunity are two types:
1-INNATE IMMUNITY (NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES )
2-ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY ‘’ SPECIFIC DEFENSES “
( IMMUNE RESPONSES ) also called Acquired immunity
INNATE IMMUNITY
“ NONSPECIFIC
DEFENSES “
NONSPECIFIC HOST DEFENSES BARRIERS
1- Anatomic barriers
Skin
Mucous membranes
2- Physiologic barriers
Low pH.
3- Chemical mediators (defensive chemical )
Lysozome, Interferon, complement, cytokines
4- Defensive Cells: Phagocytic cells and NK – cell
(natural killer cell)
5- Inflammatory barriers ( chemical defenses )
6- Fever
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES 764
“INNATE
IMMUNITY”
INNATE IMMUNITY
“ NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES “
Barriers ( anatomical and
physiological barrier )
1. Unbroken stratum corneum and sebum; living epidermal
cells secrete defensins
2. Subcutaneous tissue with WBCs
3. Mucous membranes and areolar CT with WBCs;
upper respiratory epithelium is ciliated
4. HCl in gastric juice
5. Lysozyme in saliva and tears
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
Continue: INNATE IMMUNITY
“ NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES “
Defensive Chemical
1. Interferon blocks viral reproduction
2. Complement proteins lyse foreign cells, attract
WBCs, and contribute to inflammation
3. Inflammation—the response to any kind of
damage; vasodilation and increased capillary
permeability bring tissue fluid and WBCs to the
area.
Purpose: to contain the damage, eliminate the cause,
and make tissue repair possible. Signs: redness,
heat, swelling, and pain
Continue: INNATE IMMUNITY
“ NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES “
Defensive cells
1. Phagocytes—macrophages, neutrophils
eosinophils; macrophages also activate the
lymphocytes of adaptive immunity
2. Langerhans cells and other dendritic cells—
activate lymphocytes
3. Natural killer cells—destroy foreign cells by
rupturing their cell membranes
4. Basophils and mast cells—produce histamine
and leukotrienes (inflammation)
INNATE IMMUNITY ( Barriers )
“ NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES “
INNATE IMMUNIT (Defensive Cells) “
NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES “
INNATE IMMUNIT(Chemical Defenses) “
NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES “
ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
“ SPECIFIC DEFENSES “
( IMMUNE RESPONSES )
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
Adaptive Immunity are of
two types:
1- Humoral Immunity (Antibodies, Ab)
produce by B- lymphoctes
2- Cellular Immunity
produce by T- lymphocytes
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
COMPONENT OF ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE
( Components of Specific Immune System)
123456-
Cellular Component
Complement System
Kinin System
Coagulation Cascade (system)
Fibrinolytic System
Cytokines ( immune modulators )
“ immune system hormones”
“ Immunotransmitters “
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
IMMUNE CELLS
The immune cells consist of the
1- T – lymphocytes ( cellular immunity ) are :
a- Cytotoxic T-cells
b- Helper T- cells
2- B – lymphocytes and plasma cell
(humoral immunity)
3- Macrophages
the accessory cells such, which aid in processing
and presentation of antigens to the lymphocytes.
Cytokines
Cytokines are molecules that
form a Communication link
between immune cells and
other tissues and organs of
the body.
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
IMMUNITY
1- HUMORAL IMMUNITY
‘’ SPECIFIC DEFENSES “
Antibody-Mediated - Humoral Immunity
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
IMMUNITY ‘’ SPECIFIC DEFENSES “
Antibody-Mediated (Humoral) Immunity
1- Does involve antibody production; is effective against
pathogens and foreign cells.
2. B cells and helper T cells recognize the foreign antigen; the B
cells are antigen specific and begin to divide.
3. Memory B cells will remember the specific foreign
antigen.
4. Other B cells become plasma cells that produceantigenspecific antibodies.
5. An antigen–antibody complex is formed, which attracts
macrophages (opsonization).
6. Complement fixation is stimulated by antigen–antibody
complexes. The complement proteins bind to the antigen–
antibody complex and lyse cellular antigens or enhance the
phagocytosis of noncellular antigens.
TYPES OF ANTIBODIES
Name Location
IgG
Blood,
Extracellular
fluid
IgA External secretion
(tears, saliva etc)
IgM
IgD
IgE
Blood
B lymphocytes
Mast cells or
basophils
FUNCTIONS
• Crosses the placenta to provide passive immunity for
newborns
• Provides long-term immunity following recovery or
a vaccine
• Present in breast milk to provide passive immunity for
breast-fed infants
• Found in secretions of all mucous membrane
• Produced first by the maturing immune system of
infants
• Produced first during an infection (IgG production
follows)
• Part of the ABO blood group
• Receptors on B lymphocytes
• Important in allergic reactions (mast cells release
histamine)
ALLERGIC RESPONSE
ANTIGEN
Foreign antigens:
chemical compound stimulate antibody
production or other immune responses,
and include bacteria, viruses, fungi,
protozoa, and malignant
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
ANTIGEN and ANTIBODY
DIAGNOSTIC TESES INVOLVE ANTIBODY
1- Complement fixation test
determines the presence of a particular antibody in the
patient’s blood, but does not indicate when the infection
occurred.
2- Antibody titer
determines the level or amount of a specific antibody in
the patient’s blood
3- Fluorescent antibody test
uses antibodies tagged with fluorescent dyes, which are
added to a clinical specimen such as blood, sputum, or
a biopsy of tissue.
2- Cellular Immunity
IMMUNITY ‘’ SPECIFIC DEFENSES “
Cell-Mediated (cellular) Immunity
1-Does not involve production of antibodies; is effective
against intracellular pathogens (such as viruses, fungi
)malignant cells, and grafts of foreign tissue.
2. Helper T cells recognize the foreign antigen, are antigen
specific, and begin to divide to form different groups of T
cells.
3. Memory T cells will remember the specific
foreign antigen.
4. Cytotoxic (killer) T cells chemically destroy
foreign cells and produce cytokines to attract
macrophages
Adaptive immunity. (A) Cell-mediated
immunity.
IMMMUNE DISORDERS
1- Allergy and Hypersensitivity
(Anaphylaxis)
2- Autoimmune disease
3- Immunodeficiency
4- Inflammation
5- Tumor
6- Cancer