Regents review for part 4a Prepositions plus the accusative • Per, trans, ob, circum, super, ad • In and sub can also come after the ablative Prepositions with the ablative • A(b), e(ex), de, pro, cum, sine • In and sub can also use the accusative Indirect question • Question word in the middle of the sentence Quis, Ubi, Cur, Quo, Quomodo, • Must have a full verb in the subjunctive in the 2nd clause Indirect statement • Head verb, E.G.,PUTO, SCIO, SENTIO, DICO, AUDIO, VIDEO, SPECTO, AFFIRMO. LOQUOR, FOR, COGNOSCO • Plus a d.o. • Plus an infinitive Imperative—usually found with a vocative and an exclamation point! Do it! • Singular=infinitive w/o the –re • Plural=add -te to the singular – Except 3rd conj. Which takes “ite” • Irregular commands: Dic, duc, fac, fer* *not really irregular Vocative—usually found with an imperative and an exclamation point! • -us becomes –e • -ius becomes –i • Otherwise the vocative is the same as the nominative (except for some Greek names) Negative imperative Don’t do it! • Noli (singular) or Nolite (plural) plus an infinitive • Noli dormire in via! • Nolite accedere ad ignem! Ablative of means • • • • • A non-human word In the ablative case No preposition and not part of an A.A. Translated by means of or with Toga, sagittis, arboribus Ablative absolute • Two words in the ablative • One is a noun, one a participle • They have to agree in gender, number (s/p) • Often but not always have the same ending. (ore aperto —with the mouth having been opened; ore aperiente -with the mouth opening) • In the Regents, they come first in the sentence and are set off by commas Participles—adjectives made from verbs • Present- -ns, -ntis, -nti, etc • Perfect 4th p.p. plus first and 2nd decl endings: missus, a, um; latus,a,um Present is translated: The _____ing dog Perfect is translated: the dog, having been ______ or simply the _____ed dog Translating A.A. • • • • Cane latrante,--with the dog barking Cane viso, with the dog having been seen Populo movente —with the people moving Populo moto —with the people having been moved • Puella occupata —with the girl having been attacked • Tribunis dicentibus -with the tribunes speaking Dative uses • After certain verbs, placet, credo, faveo • After compound verbs • As indirect object after verbs of giving, showing or “doing” s.t. for s.o. Complementary infinitive • Fills out the meaning of the verb • Verbs that commonly take the complementary infinitive include: possum, propero, studeo, dubito, timeo, • Praperavit fugere =he hurried to flee Si clauses • both clauses take the same tense of the subjunctive • Si audivisset, venisset • Si dormiret, non audiret Ut/ne clauses • Take either the present or imperfect subjunctive • Present subjunctive: We beat all liars (amet, doceat, ponat, audiat) • Imperfect subjunctive: infinitive plus an ending Gerund, a noun made from a verb Uses 2nd declension neuter endings (no nominative singular) timor volandi: fear of flying occasio flendo: a time for crying Via ad fugiendum: road toward fleeing Venit ambulando: she comes by walking comparison When comparing two things you can use the word quam after the comparative (and quam functions as an equal sign) • Mater est altior quam pater Or you can just use the ablative case • Mater est altior patre. Relative clause • Remember the relative pronoun agrees with the word it is describing (i.e. the antecedent) in gender (m/f/n) and number (s/p), but not necessarily case. • In the Regents, the antecedent will come immediately before the pronoun • Consul vaccam quae per forum currebat vidit.