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Transcript
Regents review for part 4a
Prepositions plus the accusative
• Per, trans, ob, circum, super, ad
• In and sub can also come after the
ablative
Prepositions with the ablative
• A(b), e(ex), de, pro, cum, sine
• In and sub can also use the accusative
Indirect question
• Question word in the middle of the
sentence Quis, Ubi, Cur, Quo, Quomodo,
• Must have a full verb in the subjunctive in
the 2nd clause
Indirect statement
• Head verb, E.G.,PUTO, SCIO, SENTIO,
DICO, AUDIO, VIDEO, SPECTO,
AFFIRMO. LOQUOR, FOR, COGNOSCO
• Plus a d.o.
• Plus an infinitive
Imperative—usually found with a
vocative and an exclamation point!
Do it!
• Singular=infinitive w/o the –re
• Plural=add -te to the singular
– Except 3rd conj. Which takes “ite”
• Irregular commands: Dic, duc, fac, fer*
*not really irregular
Vocative—usually found with an
imperative and an exclamation
point!
• -us becomes –e
• -ius becomes –i
• Otherwise the vocative is the same as the
nominative (except for some Greek
names)
Negative imperative
Don’t do it!
• Noli (singular) or Nolite (plural) plus an
infinitive
• Noli dormire in via!
• Nolite accedere ad ignem!
Ablative of means
•
•
•
•
•
A non-human word
In the ablative case
No preposition and not part of an A.A.
Translated by means of or with
Toga, sagittis, arboribus
Ablative absolute
• Two words in the ablative
• One is a noun, one a participle
• They have to agree in gender, number (s/p)
• Often but not always have the same ending.
(ore aperto —with the mouth having been opened; ore
aperiente -with the mouth opening)
• In the Regents, they come first in the sentence
and are set off by commas
Participles—adjectives made from
verbs
• Present- -ns, -ntis, -nti, etc
• Perfect 4th p.p. plus first and 2nd decl
endings: missus, a, um; latus,a,um
Present is translated:
The _____ing dog
Perfect is translated: the dog, having been
______ or simply the _____ed dog
Translating A.A.
•
•
•
•
Cane latrante,--with the dog barking
Cane viso, with the dog having been seen
Populo movente —with the people moving
Populo moto —with the people having
been moved
• Puella occupata —with the girl having
been attacked
• Tribunis dicentibus -with the tribunes
speaking
Dative uses
• After certain verbs, placet, credo, faveo
• After compound verbs
• As indirect object after verbs of giving,
showing or “doing” s.t. for s.o.
Complementary infinitive
• Fills out the meaning of the verb
• Verbs that commonly take the
complementary infinitive include: possum,
propero, studeo, dubito, timeo,
• Praperavit fugere =he hurried to flee
Si clauses
• both clauses take the same tense of the
subjunctive
• Si audivisset, venisset
• Si dormiret, non audiret
Ut/ne clauses
• Take either the present or imperfect
subjunctive
• Present subjunctive: We beat all liars
(amet, doceat, ponat, audiat)
• Imperfect subjunctive: infinitive plus an
ending
Gerund, a noun made from a verb
Uses 2nd declension neuter endings (no
nominative singular)
timor volandi: fear of flying
occasio flendo: a time for crying
Via ad fugiendum: road toward fleeing
Venit ambulando: she comes by walking
comparison
When comparing two things you can use the
word quam after the comparative (and
quam functions as an equal sign)
• Mater est altior quam pater
Or you can just use the ablative case
• Mater est altior patre.
Relative clause
• Remember the relative pronoun agrees
with the word it is describing (i.e. the
antecedent) in gender (m/f/n) and number
(s/p), but not necessarily case.
• In the Regents, the antecedent will come
immediately before the pronoun
• Consul vaccam quae per forum currebat
vidit.