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5th Grade Science 5.7 Earth, Patterns, Cycles, and Changes 1. Most volcanoes and earthquakes are located at the boundary of plates (faults). 2. Weathering is the process of breaking down rocks chemically and physically. 3. Erosion causes weathered rocks and soil to be washed away. 4. Sedimentary – layers of sediment cemented together Igneous – melting and cooling lava and magma Metamorphic – changed by heat and pressure 5. Scientific evidence such as fossils. 6. The layers are the crust, mantel, inner core and outer core. The two outside layers are made mostly of rocky material. The inner layers are made mostly of iron and nickel. 7. Farmers and construction companies need to preserve topsoil by preventing erosion of the land. People can plant trees and plants to prevent erosion. 8. Rocks can be described by composition, grain size, texture, and color. Fossils also give information about the rocks.