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Section 7.3: “How rocks are formed”
-“from fire”
-formed when hot magma (way, way under the surface) or lava (on the surface)
-crystal size depends on how slow it cooled
-Intrusive igneous rocks formed well below the surface, ‘intruded into the rock’
-Extrusive rocks formed on the Earth’s surface (exited the Earth)
-reach the surface through cracks in the crust/plates, or through erosion and uplift
of layers of rock
-figure 7.13
-made from sediment that has hardened or undergone chemical change
-sediment is loose material like clay, sand, silt, pebbles, salts, and plant/animal
-sediments created by erosion, then moved by wind/water/gravity to areas where
they are deposited
-always in ‘layers’ oldest at bottom, (can be uplifted and flipped!)
-over millions of years, the layers are buried, and squeezed together where chemical
change occurs….”compaction”, glued together through “cementation”
-see figure 7.16
-can contain fossils; soft parts decay, leave shells, or an imprint that is filled with
another layer…
-“from heat”, pressure, or chemicals cause the rock type to change
-marble (limestone), diamonds (coal), shale (limestone),
-takes millions of years to occur
-always deep in the Earth’s crust where heat and pressures are high
-rock that is turned into a metamorphic rock is the ‘parent rock’
-foliated (page-like) = thin flat layers