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• Anabolic pathways
– Synthetic
– Reductive
– Endergonic
• Catabolic pathways
– Degradative
– Oxidative
– Exergonic
Linked by ATP and redox cofactors
a "high energy" compound
Why is ATP "high energy"?
• Charge repulsion of phosphates
• Increase in entropy (number of
molecules increases)
• Resonance stabilization of product
a "high energy" compound
In cell, G= -10 to –14 kcal/mol
Group Transfer Reactions
Other energy transfers
• Redox reactions
– Catabolic is ?
– Anabolic is ?
• Redox potential energy
– Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)
– Flavin adenine dinucleotide
Focus on glucose
• Major fuel for animals
• Major fuel for plants
• Central to metabolism of
– Amino acids
– Fats/fatty acids
We're going to look at breakdown and
synthesis of glucose
Catabolism of glucose
• Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway)
• Aerobic respiration
– Glycolysis
– Kreb's cycle (TCA cycle, citrate cycle)
C6H12O6 + 6O2
6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
• Anaerobic respiration
– Lactate (lactic acid) production
– Fermentation—ethanol production