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Name ____ KEY _____________________________________ Natural Selection and Adaptations Review 1. What two things influence the traits of an organism? inheriting traits from parents, the environment 2. What is the difference between a mutation and an adaptation? mutations can be favorable or unfavorable. Adaptations are always favorable. 3. How do mutations occur? mutations occur randomly when DNA is being copied 4. Create a sentence using the following words: Adaptations, Environment, Survive, Characteristics Adaptations are favorable characteristics that help an organism survive in its environment. 5. Fill out the chart: Adaptation Definition Examples Physical/Structural body parts beak shape, claws, teeth, gizzards Behavioral actions/behaviors hibernation, migration Physiological/Functional body functions/processes photosynthesis, blood circulation, fight or flight response Describe how the following adaptations help the organism: 6. thick fur in polar bears helps them endure the cold 7. long necks in giraffes help them reach higher leaves & get food 8. xylem in plants transports water from roots to leaves 9. beaks in birds specialized to help them get their food 10. blubber in whales thick layer of fat for insulation in cold water 11. camouflage allows an organism to remain unseen in their environment hide from prey/predators 12. gills/lungs allow animals to obtain oxygen in their environment 13. migration in birds move south to find more available food sources Name ____ KEY _____________________________________ Natural Selection and Adaptations Review 14. Describe the studies of Charles Darwin and how he influenced our current understanding of Natural Selection. Charles Darwin studied birds in the Galapagos Islands. He discovered that birds on different islands had beaks suited for their environment and the type of food that was available. Through his research, he concluded that all of these birds had evolved from a common ancestor. 15. How does Darwin’s phrase “survival of the fittest” apply to Natural Selection? Only the organisms who are the most fit in the environment are the ones who are able to survive and reproduce. The diagram provided shows the gene flow in the evolution of the polar bear . 16. What caused the physical adaptation of white fur in the bear? a random mutation occurred while DNA was being copied. 17. Why is the last brown bear in the diagram crossed out? it was not able to survive 18. What process does the diagram represent? Define that process. natural selection the process in which animals with favorable traits are able to survive to pass on those traits to their offspring. Name ____ KEY _____________________________________ Natural Selection and Adaptations Review 19. Explain the different between Natural Selection and Selective Breeding (Artificial Selection). in natural selection, the environment chooses the favorable traits. in selective breeding, humans select the favorable traits 20. Describe what is happening in figures 13. the number of white mice is decreasing. 21.An adaptation is any characteristics that increases fitness, which is defined as the ability to survive and reproduce. What characteristic of the mice is an adaptation that increased their fitness? camouflage is what allowed the gray mice to blend in with their environment and increased their fitness. 22. What will eventually happen to the population of grey mice, what about the population of the white mice? the population of gray mice will increase, the population of white mice will decrease. 23. Draw a picture of what the 4th illustration would look like. 4 the picture should show all gray mice and no white mice . Name ____ KEY _____________________________________ Natural Selection and Adaptations Review 24.Why would a deer be likely to eat the left cactus rather than the right cactus? The cactus on the left does not have needles/spines. 25. In figure 3, the right cactus has flowers, but the cactus that has been eaten by the deer is too damaged to make flowers. Figure 4 shows the situation several months later. What has happened? The cactus on the left died because it was not fit for its environment. 26. How is the illustration representing natural selection? Organisms that have favorable adaptations (likes spines/needles) are able to survive in their environment. Those organisms are able to pass on their traits to their offspring.