Download Cells and Tissues

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Cell-penetrating peptide wikipedia, lookup

Mitosis wikipedia, lookup

Cytokinesis wikipedia, lookup

Meiosis wikipedia, lookup

Karyotype wikipedia, lookup

Chromosome wikipedia, lookup

Amitosis wikipedia, lookup

Organ-on-a-chip wikipedia, lookup

Cellular differentiation wikipedia, lookup

Cell culture wikipedia, lookup

Cell growth wikipedia, lookup

Cell cycle wikipedia, lookup

Vectors in gene therapy wikipedia, lookup

Biology wikipedia, lookup

Life wikipedia, lookup

Cell theory wikipedia, lookup

Developmental biology wikipedia, lookup

Cell (biology) wikipedia, lookup

Symbiogenesis wikipedia, lookup

State switching wikipedia, lookup

Introduction to genetics wikipedia, lookup

Sexual reproduction wikipedia, lookup

Cells and Tissues
What is it that makes you you?
What is the biggest organelle?
• The nucleus
– The control center for the cell
– Contains DNA
• Contains the message that
makes proteins
• Proteins run the cell.
– Contains the organelle=
• Nucleolus makes RNA that
carries out DNA’s
What surrounds the nucleus?
The Phospholipid membrane
Two membranes.
Keeps DNA in
Only RNA can leave
What are the names of DNA?
• Chromatin: Unwound DNA
• Chromosomes: Tightly wound DNA
What surrounds the cell?
• The Plasma Membrane. Made out of
• May have cilia or microvilli around the cell.
• Microvilli are in the back of your throat
(filter air) and in your intestine (absorb
food). Pg.389 +419
What is in the cell?
• Most of the cell is full of Cytoplasm.
– Cytoplasm: Gel like fluid where most of the
cells chemical reactions take place.
• Organelles: Mini cell organs that carry out
specific job functions for the cell.
Cells Alive
Overview of Cell Parts
What are the major organelles?
• Ribosomes: rRNA. Where proteins are
made. Usually on the rough ER.
• Endoplasmic Reticulum:
– rough ER close to the nucleus, where proteins
are made
– Smooth ER makes lipids. No rRNA present.
• Golgi Apparatus: Ships proteins and
More organelles…
• Lysosomes: SOS. Contain digestive
enzymes. Kill invaders and worn out cell
• Mitochondria: Power house of the cell.
Makes ATP (Body runs on ATP energy.)
• Cytoskeleton: Skeleton of the cell. Shape
• Centrioles: Move Chromosomes during
cell division.
Membrane Transport
Pg. 46
What kinds of fluids pass through
the cell membrane?
• Solution: homogeneous mixture of two or
more things
– Solvent: Bigger word, bigger thing
– Solute: Smaller word, smaller thing
• Intracellular fluid: fluid in the cell that
contains gasses, nutrients, salts, & water
• Interstitial fluid: bathes the outside of our
Why is the plasma membrane
selectively permeable?
• Works as a barrier. Only allows certain
things in or out of the cell.
• Means of protection.
• Cells that can not do this are dead or
What are the two forms of cell
• Active Transport: uses energy (ATP) to
move molecules against the concentration
gradient or to move large things.
• Passive Transport: uses NO energy to
move molecules with the concentration
What types of Passive transport
does the body use?
• Diffusion: When molecules move from
high to low or with the concentration
– Perfume, food coloring, etc. all do this.
• Osmosis: a specialized form of diffusion
which moves water from high to low across
the plasma membrane.
What types of Passive transport
does the body use?
• Facilitated Diffusion: Uses carrier
proteins to move substances without energy
with the concentration gradient.
• Filtration: water and solutes are forced
through a plasma membrane. Happens in
the Kidneys.
What types of Active transport do you use?
• Solute Pumping: Require protein carriers
and energy to move sugars, Amino Acids,
and ions against the concentration gradient.
(Sodium Potassium pump used in Nerve cells)
More Active Transport…
• Bulk Transport: Substances too big to
pass through the plasma membrane.
Exocytosis: Large things exit the cells
Endocytosis: Large things enter the cell
Phagocytosis: Cells that eat- white blood cell
Pinocytosis: Cells drink- intestine and kidneys
Types of Solutions: Pg 60
• Isotonic Solution: Same tonicity inside and
outside the cell. Cell stays the same size.
• Hypertonic Solution: Higher tonicity
outside the cell. Cell shrinks.
• Hypotonic Solution: Lower tonicity outside
the cell. Cell swells and “POPS”
Chromosomes and Mitosis
Pg. 63
Two different Cell Divisions
• Meiosis- produces gametes or sex cells.
New cells are different from the original
• Mitosis- produces new body cells-like your
toes. New cells are identical to original cell.
DNA in all of its fine forms:
• Chromosomes: Tightly wound DNA.
Resemble an X because two chromatids are
held together.- Supercoiled.
• Centromere holds the chromosomes (Two
sister Chromatids) together.
• Chromatid: A single tightly wound strand
of DNA.
Homologous Chromosomes
And last but not least…
• DNA is your genetic information. In the
shape of a double helix. The nucleotide
pairs are: (Hydrogen bonds)
– Adenine= Thymine
– Cytosine: Guanine
• DNA is broken into segments called genes
which code for proteins.
• Genes give you your physical
It DNA the final say?
• Epigenetics may play a role.
Epigenetic Effect
Before Eukaryotic Cells
• Its chromosomes are replicated.
• Happens through the process of DNA
Replication. DNA Replication pg.68
• DNA needs enzymes (protein) to copy or
replicate itself.
• Double helix unwinds using DNA Helicase.
• DNA Helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds.
• Where the DNA breaks apart is called the
replication fork. DNA polymerase (another
enzyme) adds nucleotides at this point.
How many Chromosomes do
humans have?
• Each somatic cell or body cell has two
copies of 23 chromosomes.
• One copy of the chromosomes (sex cells or
gametes) have 23 chromosomes and are
called haploid or n = 23.
• Two copies of the chromosomes (somatic
cells) have 2n = 46.
There are two types of
• Autosomal Chromosomes: or autosomes are
not sex chromosomes.
• Sex Chromosomes: determine the sex of the
individual. The male of the species
determines the sex of the offspring. Women
only have one X chromosome. Males have
an X or a Y.
• XX is a girl
• XY is a boy
Karyotypes: Pictures of your
• Why do we take pictures? To find mistakes
The 5 stages of the Cell Cycle
G1: Cell Growth and Metabolism
S: DNA is copied
G2: Cell prepares for division.
Mitosis: Nucleus divides, cell parts
• Cytokinesis: Cytoplasm divides
When control of the Cell cycle is
lost: Cancer is the outcome.
• Cancer: uncontrolled cell division or death.
• Read pg 127: Normal cells become
Hit the Cancer Biology
Documentary Link
Mitosis The Basic Steps:6:3
• Prophase: DNA forms chromosomes.
Nuclear envelope disappears. In Animals
spindle fibers form.
• Metaphase: Chromosomes move to the
center of the cell- pulled by spindle fibers.
• Anaphase: Chromosomes are separated into
chromatids. Spindles shorten pulling
chromatids to opposite ends of the cell.
• Telophase: Nucleus reforms. Chromatids
turn back into Chromatin. Spindles
The Jazzy
Version of
After Mitosis
• Cytokinesis: Cytoplasm divides in half.
• Animals: The plasma membrane pinches in
half= Furrow.
• Plants: A cell wall grows between the two
new cells. Cell Plate.
Cell Cycle
Meiosis: The making of gametes
One cell eventually creates four cells
Each cell is different from the parent cell
Meiosis goes through cell division twice
The Stages of Meiosis
• Prophase 1: Chromosomes are made
and the nucleus membrane disappears.
• Homologous Chromosomes pair and attach
by centromeres.
• Crossing-over occurs. Cross over is the
process of homologous chromosomes
breaking off and exchanging parts.
– This process is responsible for making you
Meiosis Continued
• Metaphase 1
chromosomes are
pulled by spindle
fibers to the middle of
the cell. (Two pair of
chromosomes are
• Anaphase 1
• Pair of Homologous
separate. Spindle
fibers attach to a
centromere to guide
chromosomes to
opposite ends of the
Meiosis Continued
• Telophase 1
• Two cells have
been made. We
• Homologous
need 4.
chromosomes are at
opposite ends of the • Here ends the first
cell. Cytokinesis
cell division.
• Ready for part two?
Meiosis- Part 2
• Prophase II
• Metaphase II
• New spindle fibers • Chromosomes line
form around
up in the middle (or
equator) of the cell.
Nucleus disappears.
And finally…Meiosis ends
• Anaphase II
• The spindle fibers
pull the
chromosomes apart.
Chromatids move
to opposite ends of
the cell.
• Telophase II
• A new nucleus is
formed. Spindle fibers
• Cytokinesis occurs.
• Four cells, genetically
different from the
parent cell have been
Why does Meiosis create
genetic variation?
• Crossing over. Mixes up the traits on each
• Independent assortment. You have 46
chromatids. ½ go to each new cell in Meiosis
1 and again in Meiosis II. No one knows
which chromatids will go to which cell.
• Random Fertilization. Which egg and which
sperm will meet? = a greater genetic
Making Gametes:
Different for different sexes.
• Sperm Formation
• Spermatogenesis
• One diploid germ cell
makes four haploid
sperm cells.
• Occurs in the testis
throughout the males
Third Link
adult life
• Egg formation: Ovum
• Oogenesis
• One diploid germ cell
makes one egg and three
polar bodies.
• Egg must provide the food
for the zygote (fertilized
• Made in ovaries, most
before birth
Comparison of
Sexual Reproduction: Two
• Offspring is genetically different from
• Great for environmental change. Easy to
• Meiosis can better repair damaged DNA
How Proteins are Made
Pgs. 60-61
The Basic Process of Making
• DNA (In the Nucleus) is Transcribed into
mRNA. (Transcription)
• RNA brings the message to the Rough ER
where its Translated into a protein.
The Details: RNA
(Ribonucleic Acid)
There are three types of RNA
mRNA (messenger RNA)
rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)
tRNA (Transfer RNA)
RNA is Single Stranded, sugar is RIBOSE
The Nitrogen bases for RNA are…
– Adenine bonds to Uracil
– Cytosine bonds to Guanine
The Story
• DNA is stuck in the nucleus.
• RNA is made in the nucleolus.
• mRNA transcribes or re-writes DNA’s code
in RNA and leaves the nucleus through
nuclear pores.
• mRNA brings the message to the ribosome
also known as rRNA.
The fairy tale continues Fig 10-5
• Once mRNA is hooked onto the rRNA it
needs the right amino acids to make a
– Remember 50 or more A.Acids make a Protein!
• tRNA carries amino acids to the rRNA and
hooks them onto the correct mRNA codon.
– A codon is a three nucleotide sequence (AUG)
How does the story end?
• When the stop codon is reached the Amino
Acid chain falls off and rolls into a ball and
becomes a protein.
• mRNA goes back to the nucleus to be
• rRNA stays on the Endoplasmic Reticulum
waiting for the next job.
• tRNA picks up new Amino Acids for the
next job.
Overview Movie
Start Here