Download AP Euro Unit 1 Renaissance and Exploration Outline

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Transcript
Unit 1

What is the Renaissance?

Italy offers new opportunities
 Urban centers
 Power of merchant guilds and patronage
 Production and Consumption
 THE PLAGUE and impacts
 Overproduction and under consumption
 Mass consumer society
 Parentage and Gender
 Childhood
 Wet-nurse
 “nuclear family?”
 Marriage and the Family
 Life of Daughters – rich vs.
Poor
 Marriage and Dowry
 Marriage age and issues with
men
 The QUALITY OF LIFE

Food

Role of Roman Catholic Church
Solidarity of City-State and Church



Celebration of Individual
Love of classical learning
Enjoyment of worldly pleasures
RENAISSANCE IDEALS
HUMANISM
philology and rhetoric vs. Scholasticism
Castiglione – Book of the Courtier
Ideal Man
Ideal Woman

Studying the Classical World

Historiography and classical world
Petrarch
Leonardo Bruni
Lorenzo Valla and philology
Civil Humanism
What is it? Leon Battista Alberti

Text-based knowledge vs. experiment based

Hippocrates and Galen – PADUA
 The Body Humors and bleeding
 Experimentation – Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology):
Pages from his Notebook
An example of
the humanist
desire to unlock
the secrets of
nature.
Leonardo, the Scientist (Anatomy):
Pages from his Notebook

Niccolo Machiavelli
Background
 Council of Ten – diplomacy
 Fall of Republic 1512 and outcomes

THE PRINCE


The Politics of the City-States
 The Five Powers
 Venice: A Seaborne Empire
 Florence: Cloth to Gold
 The Kingdom of Naples


Quattocento -- ??
The Medici rule Florence – city-states


Cosimo de Medici
Lorenzo de Medici
Beautification of Florence
Brunelleschi
Donatello
Masaccio and perspective
Lorenzo
the Magnificent
1478 - 1521
Cosimo de Medici
1517 - 1574
Florence Under the Medici
Medici Chapel
The Medici Palace
 Filippo Brunelleschi
1377 - 1436
 Architect
 Cuppolo of St. Maria
del Fiore

Commissioned to
build the cathedral
dome.

Used unique
architectural
concepts.
 He studied the
ancient
Pantheon in Rome.
 Used ribs for
support.
Brunelleschi’s Dome
Other Famous Domes
Il Duomo
(Florence)
St. Peter’s
(Rome)
St. Paul’s
(London)
US capital
(Washington)
The Ideal City
Piero della Francesca, 1470
A Contest to Decorate the Cathedral: Sacrifice of
Isaac Panels
Brunelleschi
Ghiberti
Ghiberti – Gates of Paradise
Baptistry Door, Florence – 1425 - 1452
The Winner!
5. Geometrical Arrangement of
Figures
 The Dreyfus
Madonna
with the
Pomegranate
 Leonardo da
Vinci
 1469
 The figure as
architecture!
6. Light & Shadowing/Softening Edges
Sfumato
Chiaroscuro
2. Perspective
The Trinity
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Masaccio
1427
Perspective!
First use
of linear
perspective!
What you are,
I once was;
what I am,
you will
become.
Perspective
 Renaissance in Northern Europe – oil -based
 Christian Humanism – Erasmus; Sir Thomas More
 Royal courts and German masters – Durer; Holbein
 Flanders – Van Eyck; Pieter Bruegel Elder
 End of the Renaissance
 RENAISSANCE MUSIC
The Renaissance “Man”
 Broad knowledge about many things in
different fields.
 Deep knowledge/skill in one area.
 Able to link information from different
areas/disciplines and create new
knowledge.
 The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded
man” was at the heart of Renaissance
education.
Leonardo, the Inventor:
Pages from his Notebook
Man Can Fly?
Leonardo, the Engineer:
A study of siege defenses.
Pages from
his Notebook
Studies of water-lifting
devices.
 Exploration
and the
Formation of States


Age of Exploration (how part of Renaissance)
Factors encouraging exploration




Search for spices and profits
Christianity
New technology
The Slave Trade

Portuguese explore Africa to India




Prince Henry the Navigator
Bartholomeu Dias
Vasco da Gama
SPAIN
 Christopher Columbus and Columbian Exchange






Aztecs and Hernan Cortez
Francisco Pizarro and Inca
De Leon and Florida
Hernando de Soto; SE U.S.
Coronado and the SW
Pedro de Valdivia and Ines Suarez; SA

Governing an Empire – Council of the Indies;
viceroy
 encomienda

Treaty of Tordesillas (1493)





Amerigo Vespucci
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Pedro Alvares Cabral and Brazil
Ferdinand Magellan
French Exploration
Samuel de Champlain
 Marquette and Joliet
 Robert La Salle
 NEW FRANCE






Sir Walter Raleigh – Roanoke Colony (1587)
John Cabot
1607 – Jamestown
Dutch Exploration and Trade -- Dutch East
India Company; West India Company
IMPACTS of Exploration

The Principality of Muscovy (Muscovites)



Ivan III (1462-1505)
Rise of a powerful state
Ivan IV “The Terrible”
 Defeat of enemies
 Mongols
 Poland-Lithuania
 Society: Boyars; military; peasants
 “war” against the boyars
 Consolidation of power

Casimir IV and Vladislav II



Union of Crowns vs. Union of States
Issues with Hungary and Bohemia
Reasons for no unification??

The War of the Roses (1455-1485)

House of Lancaster vs. House of York
Mad King Henry VI (1422-1461)
King Edward IV – Edward V --- Richard III
Richard vs. Henry Tudor – Battle of Bosworth Field
(1485)
King Henry VIII – Parliament and Partnership
Acts of Attainder
Tunnage and Poundage
Peace and Prosperiety
Commercial Policy
Diplomatic marriages


Court of the Star Chamber
3 Major Plots against the Crown
Lambert Sinnel (1487)
 PerkinWarbeck (1489-1497)
 Ralph Wilford (1496-97)




Irish Policy
views and Poyning’s Law
KING HENRY VIII
 Royal Marriage
 Early moves of new King



Cardinal John Wolsey and Henry VIII
Changes in the tax system
Diplomacy and Warfare: France


Battle of Flodden Field -- 1512
Field of the Cloth of Gold (1520) and outcomes

Unification of France

Problems with French Unification
 Provincialism
 External threats
 Hundred Years War
 Dukes of Burgundy (family feud – Valois)
 CONSOLIDATION
 Louis XI (1461-1483) “the Spider”
Taille , gabelle, aide (taxation)
struggles of Charles the Bold (Burgundy) –
Rise of National Army
expansion of Ile de France (1461-1527)
dynastic marriage and conflict

Struggles in Iberian
Peninsula
Muslim (Moors)
 State divisions
 Religions and language
 FERDINAND AND
ISABELLA (1479) –
Castile and Aragon
 Dealings with Moors –
Reconquista and Spanish Inquisition
 High Profile and involved monarchs


Emperor Charles V (1516-1556)

Change in governance of Spain
Wealth of new world and military

DYNASTIC STRUGGLES

 New Technologies in warfare
 New ways/strategy of war vs. old ways/tradition
 THE BIG THREE
 THE ITALIAN WARS
 France – Charles VIII
and Milan (1494)
 Division of Naples

Francis I vs. HRE Charles V
Issues/alliances/divisions
 Henry VIII and alliance Building – Field of the Cloth
of Gold (1520)
 Alliance and battle (1523) – Battle of Pavia

 Treaty of Madrid (1526)
 England “two-faced”
 Ottoman Threats – Suleiman the Magnificent
 Treaty of Cateau –Cambresis 1559
 outcomes