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Renaissance Renaissance Started as early as 1300, lasted until 1600 This was a “rebirth” of learning and arts Started in Italy due to three reasons: Thriving cities (overseas trade) Wealthy merchant class Classical heritage of Greece and Rome Medici Family Each city state in Italy ran their own affairs Florence came under rule of the Medici family They made a fortune in trade and banking Cosimo de’ Medici was the head of the family and the wealthiest man in Europe Medici Family 1434 won control of the government in Florence, but never ran for office Lorenzo, his grandson followed him in control of Florence Patrons of arts in their region Anything that was needed in the Florence went through the Medici family Medici Family: Florence Italy Cosimo Di Medici Lorenzo Di Medici Classical and worldly values As scholars studied ancient manuscripts, they became influenced by classical ideas This led to Humanism: focus on human potential and achievement Terms Secular- worldly and concerned with here and now Patrons- people who support the art through money Renaissance Man- an individual who strives to master almost every area of study Vernacular- native language Francesco Petrarch: Father of Humanism Italian Scholar and poet Renaissance Revolutionizes Art Artistic styles changes! Middle Ages focused in on religious subjects Focus now on REALISTIC style that was copied from classical models. Used a technique known as Perspective: showing 3 dimensions on a flat surface http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mgSPi AiBjU NINJA TURTLES Heroes in a Half Shell….Turtle Power! Most famous artists of the Renaissance… Leonardo Da Vinci Michelangelo Buonarotti Donatello Raphael Leonardo da Vinci: 1457-1519 Painter, sculptor, inventor and scientist Famous Works: Last Supper, Mona Lisa The perfect harmony and mathematical proportion of the human form intrigued Leonardo Da Vinci. So accurate it is seen in medical texts today. Michelangelo: 1475-1564 Pieta, David, Moses Sistine Chapel: Vatican City Four years to complete, an acre in area Donatello: David Made sculpture more realistic - carved natural postures and expressions that reveal personality First free standing nude done in bronze Raphael: Sistine Madonna, School of Athens, Transfiguration Favorite Subject was the Madonna Niccolo Machiavelli “It is much safer to be feared than loved” Machiavelli The Prince Examines how a ruler can gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies Sir Thomas More Wrote about “Utopia” Ideal society No private property, educated citizens William Shakespeare English poet and playwright Wrote over 37 plays “A Midsummer Nights Dream”, “Romeo and Juliet”, “Othello”, “Hamlet”, “Macbeth” etc. Introduced over 1700 words to the English language. Bedroom, lonely, generous, gloomy, heartsick, hurry. Erasmus Exposed the immoral behavior of the church and clergy. Be open-minded and good will towards others. Translated Bible into vernacular Produced Greek and Latin translations Inventions Johann Gutenberg Germany Developed moveable type Printing Press First document printed using moveable type was: BIBLE How can the printing press change the world?