A Rebirth of what?? The Greeks and Romans Ancient Culture THE RENAISSANCE COULD BE CONSIDERED A BRIDGE: The Middle Ages The Modern World “By celebrating the beauty of nature and the dignity of mankind, Renaissance artists and scholars helped shape the intellectual and cultural history of the modern world.” Nations as we know them today did not exist City States What is a City State? What are the advantages? Disadvantages? Dominated by the most powerful families. Example: Florence (until the Medici family who made it an Hereditary Monarchy) Signori – run by a single family. Example: Milan was ruled the Sforza family What does this seem like that exists in today’s society? Example: Venice – its constitution had a balance of political interests The doge – The ruler who is elected for life Pope – the spiritual prince He was elected for life by cardinals Ran just like any other city-state There was a declining role of the papacy over the city-states after the Babylonian Captivity Why was it so necessary in this type of political environment to have a strong military? Development of banking – How does this help to stimulate the economy? Florence’s currency the gold florin became the standard currency in European trade. Positives? They were able to provide credit to purchasers – stimulating trade. International Trade Negatives? Risky – the King of England had forced Florentine merchants to loan him money – he defaulted when he failed during an invasion of France in the 100 years’ War – many bankers went into bankruptcy. POPULO GROSSO: “fat people” – 5% of the population – elite/nobles, wealthy merchants, and manufacturers. MEDIOCI: middle – smaller merchants and master artisans. POPULO MINUTO: “little people” – bulk of the urban population. There was some social mobility – Why? What were the social classes based on? Center of the Southern Renaissance Why? Why did it become the center of the Renaissance? 1. The Arno Rivier – which flowed through the port of Pisa, helped trade and commerce (Florence conquered Pisa) 2. Medici Family – encouraged a cultural movement 3. City honored accomplishments of citizens 4. Education – many schools(civic as well as private) – university – highest literacy rate in Europe Wealthy Banking Family – provided stability Banished rival clans Manipulated electoral process Cosimo’s Grandson – survived an assassination attempt – hours later enemies of the family were hanging upside down from a government building – including the archbishop of Pisa Botticelli was commissioned to paint them as they swung. Gutenberg – development of Printing Diffusion of a variety of Histories Treatises Biographies Autobiographies and poems LIBRARIES Scholasticism Humanism The study of law, medicine and theology [FACTS] To The study of grammar, rhetoric, and metaphysics[THEORIES] Petrarch mocked scholastics: They can tell you “how many hairs there are in the lion’s mane. . . With how many arms the squid binds a shipwrecked sailor. . . . All these things or the greater part of it is wrong . . . . And even if they were true, they would not contribute anything to the blessed life. What is the use, I pray you, of knowing the nature of beasts, birds, fishes and serpents, and not knowing, or spurning the nature of man, to what end we are born, and from were and whither we pilgrimage.” What is a Renaissance Man?