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 “rebirth”
 In this case a rebirth of art and language.
 Northern Italy
 Began around 1300 and lasted until 1600. It later
spread north.
 The reason why Northern Europe lagged behind Italy
during the renaissance is because England and France
were locked in a hundred years’ war.
 Thriving cities
 A wealthy merchant class
 Classical heritage of Greece and Rome
 These 3 advantages help foster the Renaissance in Italy.
 Overseas trade sparked by the Crusades led to the
growth of large city-states in northern Italy.
 The rest of Europe was mostly rural
 Why would cities help the renaissance?
 Cities are often places where people exchange new
 Also called the “Black Death”.
 Killed up to 60 percent of the population in these
 - i.e. Florence population went from 85,000 to 30,000.
 Because of a reduced population there was a shrink for
business expansion. Wealthy merchants began to
pursue other interest, such as art.
 City-states were small and ran their own affairs.
 Many citizens were very active in the political life.
 Merchants were the wealthiest, most powerful class
and they dominated politics.
 Merchants earned their social rank.
 - They believed they deserved power and wealth
because of their individual merit.
 The Medici family ruled Florence .
 1434- won control of Florence’s government.
 Influenced members of the ruling council by giving
them loans.
 Virtually the dictator for 30 years.
 Renaissance leaders looked down on the art and
literature of the Middle Ages.
 Wanted more learning from Greek and Romans time.
 Study of classical texts led to Humanism.
 - Focused on human potential and achievements.
 Popularized the study of subjects such as education,
history, literature, and philosophy.
 = These Subjects are called Humanities.
 Middle Ages = wearing rough clothing and eating the
plainest of foods proved your loyalty to God.
 Humanist believed that a person could enjoy life
without offending God.
 - The wealthy openly enjoyed material luxuries, fine
music, and tasty foods.
 Even church leaders became more worldly enjoying
beautiful mansions, threw lavish banquets, and wore
expensive clothes.
 Glorified the Human body.
 Painted the sistine chapel.
 Made sculptures more realistic by carving natural
postures and expressions that reveal personality.
 Carved the statue of David.
 Painter, Sculptor, Inventor, and a Scientist = A true
“Renaissance Man”
 Painted – “Mona Lisa” and “The Last Supper”
 Learned from Michelangelo and Leonardo’s work.
 Painted the School of Athens.
 Sofonisba Anguissola was the first woman artist to gain
an international reputation.
 Painted portraits of prominent people such as King
Phillip II of Spain.
 Writers began to write in the vernacular, meaning
their native language rather than Latin.
 Renaissance writers wrote for self-expression or to
portray the individuality of their subjects.
 Niccolo Machiavelli wrote the Prince.