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“rebirth” In this case a rebirth of art and language. Northern Italy Began around 1300 and lasted until 1600. It later spread north. The reason why Northern Europe lagged behind Italy during the renaissance is because England and France were locked in a hundred years’ war. Thriving cities A wealthy merchant class Classical heritage of Greece and Rome These 3 advantages help foster the Renaissance in Italy. Overseas trade sparked by the Crusades led to the growth of large city-states in northern Italy. The rest of Europe was mostly rural Why would cities help the renaissance? Cities are often places where people exchange new ideas. Also called the “Black Death”. Killed up to 60 percent of the population in these cities. - i.e. Florence population went from 85,000 to 30,000. Because of a reduced population there was a shrink for business expansion. Wealthy merchants began to pursue other interest, such as art. City-states were small and ran their own affairs. Many citizens were very active in the political life. Merchants were the wealthiest, most powerful class and they dominated politics. Merchants earned their social rank. - They believed they deserved power and wealth because of their individual merit. The Medici family ruled Florence . 1434- won control of Florence’s government. Influenced members of the ruling council by giving them loans. Virtually the dictator for 30 years. Renaissance leaders looked down on the art and literature of the Middle Ages. Wanted more learning from Greek and Romans time. Study of classical texts led to Humanism. - Focused on human potential and achievements. Popularized the study of subjects such as education, history, literature, and philosophy. = These Subjects are called Humanities. Middle Ages = wearing rough clothing and eating the plainest of foods proved your loyalty to God. Humanist believed that a person could enjoy life without offending God. - The wealthy openly enjoyed material luxuries, fine music, and tasty foods. Even church leaders became more worldly enjoying beautiful mansions, threw lavish banquets, and wore expensive clothes. Glorified the Human body. Painted the sistine chapel. Made sculptures more realistic by carving natural postures and expressions that reveal personality. Carved the statue of David. Painter, Sculptor, Inventor, and a Scientist = A true “Renaissance Man” Painted – “Mona Lisa” and “The Last Supper” Learned from Michelangelo and Leonardo’s work. Painted the School of Athens. Sofonisba Anguissola was the first woman artist to gain an international reputation. Painted portraits of prominent people such as King Phillip II of Spain. Writers began to write in the vernacular, meaning their native language rather than Latin. Renaissance writers wrote for self-expression or to portray the individuality of their subjects. Niccolo Machiavelli wrote the Prince.