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Eukaryotic cell Cell signalling Plasma membrane Phospholipid Metabolism Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Fatty acid Differentiation Receptor site Glucose Chloroplast Chlorophyll Photosynthesis Organelle Protein Channel protein Carrier protein Solute Partially permeable membrane Cholesterol Glycolipid Glycoprotein Fluid mosaic ATP Root hair cell Water potential Osmosis Active transport Xylem Processes that lead to communication and coordination between cells. Hormones binding to their receptors on the cell surface membrane are an example. Cells that have a nucleus inside a nuclear envelope, and other membrane-bound organelles. A molecule consisting of a glycerol molecule, two fatty acid molecules and a phosphate group covalently bonded together. Phospholipids form the basis of cell membranes. The membrane that surrounds every cell, forming the selectively permeable boundary between the cell and its environment. It is made up of a double layer of phospholipids with embedded proteins. Associating with water molecules easily (waterloving). All the chemical reactions that take place in an organism. A molecule consisting of a fatty (hydrocarbon) chain and an acid (carboxylic acid, ―COOH) group. Water-repelling (water-hating). Protein or glycoprotein molecules on cell surfaces, used for attachment of specific substances such as hormones or viruses. The development and changes seen in cells as they mature to form specialised cells. An organelle found in plants, which contains chlorophyll and is responsible for photosynthetic activity in the plant. A 6-carbon monosaccharide sugar. Process by which plants, some bacteria and some protoctists make food using carbon dioxide, water and sunlight energy. Pigments found in chloroplasts of plant (and some protoctist) cells. Each molecule consists of a hydrocarbon tail and a porphyrin ring head with a magnesium atom. Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light, trapping the energy, and reflects green light. A polymer consisting of many amino acid monomers covalently bonded together. Structure inside a cell. Each organelle has a specific function. A protein found in membranes, which is capable of carrying a specific molecule or ion through the membrane by active transport. A protein pore that spans a membrane, through which very small ions and water soluble molecules may pass. A membrane that will allow some molecules to pass through but will not allow some others to pass through. A solid that dissolves in a liquid. A lipid with carbohydrate molecules attached. A lipid molecule (not a triglyceride) found in all cell membranes and involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones. The model of cell membrane structure proposed by Singer and Nicholson – a phospholipid bilayer with proteins ‘floating’ in it. A protein with carbohydrate molecules attached. Cells in the epithelium of roots that have long extensions to increase surface area for the absorption of water and minerals. The movement of water molecules from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water potential across a partially permeable membrane. A plant tissue containing xylem vessels (and other cells) that are used to transport water in a plant and provide support. Adenosine triphosphate – a molecule used to store energy temporarily in organisms. The molecule is broken down to adenosine diphosphate + phosphate to release energy to drive metabolic processes. A measure of the ability of water molecules to move freely in solution. Measures the potential for a solution to lose water – water moves from a solution with high water potential to one of lower water potential. Water potential is decreased by the presence of solutes. Movement of substances across membranes against their concentration gradient, requiring the use of energy in the form of ATP. Active transport usually involves the use of transport proteins.