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Eukaryotic cell
Cell signalling
Plasma membrane
Fatty acid
Receptor site
Channel protein
Carrier protein
Partially permeable membrane
Fluid mosaic
Root hair cell
Water potential
Active transport
Processes that lead to communication and
coordination between cells. Hormones binding to
their receptors on the cell surface membrane are
an example.
Cells that have a nucleus inside a nuclear
envelope, and other membrane-bound
A molecule consisting of a glycerol molecule, two
fatty acid molecules and a phosphate group
covalently bonded together. Phospholipids form
the basis of cell membranes.
The membrane that surrounds every cell,
forming the selectively permeable boundary
between the cell and its environment. It is made
up of a double layer of phospholipids with
embedded proteins.
Associating with water molecules easily (waterloving).
All the chemical reactions that take place in an
A molecule consisting of a fatty (hydrocarbon)
chain and an acid (carboxylic acid, ―COOH)
Water-repelling (water-hating).
Protein or glycoprotein molecules on cell
surfaces, used for attachment of specific
substances such as hormones or viruses.
The development and changes seen in cells as
they mature to form specialised cells.
An organelle found in plants, which contains
chlorophyll and is responsible for photosynthetic
activity in the plant.
A 6-carbon monosaccharide sugar.
Process by which plants, some bacteria and
some protoctists make food using carbon
dioxide, water and sunlight energy.
Pigments found in chloroplasts of plant (and
some protoctist) cells. Each molecule consists of
a hydrocarbon tail and a porphyrin ring head with
a magnesium atom. Chlorophyll absorbs red and
blue light, trapping the energy, and reflects green
A polymer consisting of many amino acid
monomers covalently bonded together.
Structure inside a cell. Each organelle has a
specific function.
A protein found in membranes, which is capable
of carrying a specific molecule or ion through the
membrane by active transport.
A protein pore that spans a membrane, through
which very small ions and water soluble
molecules may pass.
A membrane that will allow some molecules to
pass through but will not allow some others to
pass through.
A solid that dissolves in a liquid.
A lipid with carbohydrate molecules attached.
A lipid molecule (not a triglyceride) found in all
cell membranes and involved in the synthesis of
steroid hormones.
The model of cell membrane structure proposed
by Singer and Nicholson – a phospholipid bilayer
with proteins ‘floating’ in it.
A protein with carbohydrate molecules attached.
Cells in the epithelium of roots that have long
extensions to increase surface area for the
absorption of water and minerals.
The movement of water molecules from a region
of higher water potential to a region of lower
water potential across a partially permeable
A plant tissue containing xylem vessels (and
other cells) that are used to transport water in a
plant and provide support.
Adenosine triphosphate – a molecule used to
store energy temporarily in organisms. The
molecule is broken down to adenosine
diphosphate + phosphate to release energy to
drive metabolic processes.
A measure of the ability of water molecules to
move freely in solution. Measures the potential
for a solution to lose water – water moves from a
solution with high water potential to one of lower
water potential. Water potential is decreased by
the presence of solutes.
Movement of substances across membranes
against their concentration gradient, requiring the
use of energy in the form of ATP. Active
transport usually involves the use of transport