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Transcript
Chapter 4 Plate
tectonics
Review Game
What are the 4 layers
of the Earth?
Crust, mantle, inner
core, outer core
The uppermost part of the
mantle and crust that
together forms a rigid
layer is called what?
lithosphere
As the depth below the
crust increases, what 2
factors also increase?
Heat and pressure
Is the inner core a
solid, a liquid, or a gas?
solid
What layer of the
mantle lies just below
the lithosphere?
athenosphere
How does the material of
the athenosphere differ
from the material of the
lithosphere?
Athenosphere is softer
than the lithosphere
What happens in the
interior of the Earth, to
produce the Earth’s
magnetic field?
The inner core spins faster
than the outer core producing
a magnetic field.
What are the three
types of heat transfer?
Radiation, conduction,
and convection
Describe conduction
heat transfer.
When heat is
transferred by the direct
touching of materials.
Describe radiation heat
transfer.
Transfer of energy
through empty space
Describe convection heat
transfer.
Heat transfer by the movement
of heated fluid. Heated material
is less dense than a cooler
sample of the same material.
This will make the heated
material rise.
What happens to
convection currents when
the fluid reaches a
constant temperature?
Convection currents stop
What is the theory of continental
drift?
All the continents were together
at some point in the Earth’s
past, and slowly drifted to their
current positions.
Who was the scientist
that proposed that
theory?
Alfred Wegener
What are the 3 types of
evidence Wegener used
to support his theory?
Landforms, Fossils, and
Climate
Describe the evidence
from landforms.
When you match up the continents
on a map, points that would have
been connected have the same
type of landform, and the mineral
deposts were the same
Describe the evidence
from fossils.
When you match up the continents
on a map, the fossils were the
same. If the continents were not
together, there is no way those
animals could have crossed the
ocean.
Describe the evidence
from climate.
Land that is in cold
climates now, has
evidence that it was once
located in the tropics
What is the name
Wegener gave to the
super continent?
Panpaea
Why didn’t scientists
accept his theory at first?
He could not explain the
mechanism for the
continents to move.
Explain what sea floor
spreading is?
The process that
continually adds new
material to the ocean floor
What are the 3 forms of
evidence that supports
sea floor spreading?
Molten material, magnetic
stripes, and drilling
samples
What is the evidence from
molten material?
Pillow lava and other forms of
hardened lava are scattered across
the ocean floor, this is evidence
that molten material constantly
erupts from the mid-ocean ridge
Explain the evidence from
magnetic stripes.
The rocks on the ocean floor
contain the direction of the Earth’s
magnetic field at the time they
hardened. The bands move in
alternating directions as you move
across the ocean.
Explain the evidence
from drilling samples.
The age of the rocks near the
ridge are younger than rocks
that are further away from the
ridge.
Explain the subduction
of oceanic crust.
When oceanic crust
gets pushed under
another plate.
The formation, movement,
and subduction of the
Earth’s plates is explained
by what?
Plate tectonics
What are the 3 types of
plate boundaries
called?
Transform, convergent,
and divergent
Explain how a
transform boundary
moves.
Slip past each other
↑↓
Explain how a convergent
boundary moves.
Plates crash into each
other
→←
Explain how a divergent
boundary moves.
Plates move away from
each other
←→
What is a rift valley?
A divergent boundary
between 2 continental
plates.
What is an ocean
trench?
The location where
oceanic crust dives
beneath another plate
What happens when 2
continental plates
converge?
Mountain building
What type of energy
transformation powers
plate tectonics?
Convection currents in
the mantle