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Plate Tectonics Lithosphere – the earth’s crust 1) The Earth’s crust is not a continuous, solid rock layer 2) The crust is broken up into smaller units (pieces) called plates. * Most of each plate is found beneath the oceans. They form the ocean basins * The part of each plate above the sea level forms the continents. Continental Drift The theory that states that the continents are slowly drifting across the globe. Pangea – Super Continent This giant landmass existed millions of years ago. All of the continents were joined together like puzzle pieces. •Movement of the continent is caused by convection currents in the asthenosphere •The asthenosphere is the upper part of the mantle in which convection cells occur. •The rock that makes up the asthenosphere acts like a fluid. As a result convection can take place there because of the movement.