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Transcript
Sentence Variety
6 types
1. Simple Sentences
2. Compound Sentences
3. Complex Sentences
4. Compound-Complex
5. Sentence with
Appositive Phrase
6. Sentence with
Participle Phrase
The Simple Sentence
A simple sentence is also called an
independent clause (it has one subject
and one verb):
I live in San Francisco.
Subject
Verb
Compound Sentence
A compound sentence is made up of two
simple sentences joined by one of the
following:
• A semicolon
• I like to study grammar; I love this class.
• A conjunction (FANBOYS)
• I like to study grammar, and I love this class.
• A semicolon and a transitional word
• I like to study grammar; therefore, I love this class
Connect Using a Semicolon
Independent Clause ; Independent Clause
I love living in the city ; there are so many things to do.
Independent
Clause
Independent
Clause
Connect Using a Coordinating Conjunction
Independent Clause ,coordinating conjunction Independent Clause
He couldn’t watch the show , so he decided to
tape it.
Independent
Clause
Independent
Clause
Coordinating Conjunctions
Logical Relationship
Coordinating
Conjunction
Addition
And
Contrast
But, yet
Choice
Or, nor
Cause
For
Result
So
FANBOYS
Another way to remember these is…
For 
 And 
 Nor 
 But 
 Or 
 Yet 
 So 

F
A
N
B
O
Y
S
CAUTION!
Do NOT use a comma every time you use
the words and, or, but, nor, for, so, yet.
Use a comma only when the coordinating
conjunction joins two independent clauses.
Simple Sentence
The necklace was beautiful but expensive.
Independent
Clause
No comma- not an
independent clause
Connect Using a Transition
Independent Clause ; transition , Independent Clause
I love San Francisco ; however,
Independent
Clause
I hate the traffic.
Independent
Clause
Click here to see lists of
transitions.
FINALLY
Combine Two Sentences to make it a
Compound Sentence. Use either a
semicolon, coordinating conjunction or a
semicolon with a transitional word
She works in the city ,but She lives in the suburbs.
;however,
Independent
Clause
;
Independent
Clause
Complex Sentences
Complex Sentences
A complex sentence contains at least one
independent clause and one dependent
clause. Dependent clauses begin with key
words
John cannot set up his typewriter
Independent Clause
because the wall has no outlet.
Subordinating
Conjunction
Dependent Clause
Complex Sentence
The Dependent Clause in this sentence begins
with a Subordinating Conjunction
She will go to school in the city
Independent Clause
until she finds a job.
Subordinating
Conjunction
Dependent Clause
Complex Sentences
Use a comma after a dependent clause if it
begins the sentence.
When I first moved to the city,
Subordinating
Conjunction
Dependent
Clause
Use a comma if
the dependent
clause is the first
part of the
sentence.
I was afraid to drive the steep and narrow streets.
Independent
Clause
Complex Sentence
The Dependent Clause in this sentence begins with a
Relative Pronoun
Relative
Pronoun
Independent Clause
I have read nearly every novel
has written.
that J.K. Rowling
Dependent Clause
Complex sentence
The Dependent Clause in this sentence begins with a
Relative Pronoun.
Independent Clause
Dr. Charles Richter devised the Richter
scale, which is used to measure the
magnitude of earthquakes.
Relative Pronoun
Dependent Clause
Sentences using
Appositive Phrase
An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that
immediately follows another noun. An appositive
explains or defines the noun it follows and is set
off by commas.
noun
Appositive
Mexico City, the biggest city in the world, has
many interesting archaeological sites.
Mexico City = the biggest city in the world
Sentences using
Appositive Prase
Appositives are always set off by commas.
noun
Appositive
Denver, the capital of Colorado, is the home of the
Denver Broncos, the best football team in the US.
Noun

Appositive
Denver = the capital of Colorado
Denver Broncos = the best football team in the
US.
Appositive
An appositive is a noun or noun phrase
that immediately follows another noun. An
appositive explains or defines the noun it
follows and is set off by commas.
noun
Appositiv
e
Sophia, Daniela’s friend, said that maybe
the party would be at Adam’s house.
Sentences using Appositive
Another interesting aspect of Appositives is that they
can always be exchanged with the nouns they
modify.
appositive
noun
The altitude of Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, is over
12,000 feet.
The altitude of the capital of Tibet, Lhasa, is over
12,000 feet.
Participle Phrases add
description to a sentence


A participle is a verb form that can be used as an
adjective.
Participles begin with key words that ends in –ing or
–ed.
Participle phrase
Simple sentence
Enjoying a beautiful day at the beach, Ms Moreno
took her paddle board out to the ocean.
Participle Phrases add more description to a
Simple Sentence
Highlight the simple sentence and circle the participle phrase
1) Confused by the strange directions in the letter, Sara looked
at the map.
2) Josh ran to class, rushing through the halls at breakneck speed.
3) Looking at the cats competing for the prize, Sue chose the
lovely Siamese.
4) Deb played with the little German shepherd, enchanted by its
adorable personality.
5) Broken into a thousand pieces, the vase lay on the hallway
floor.
Do you see how the phrases add more description to the subject?
Practice Exercises
Now you are ready to practice what you’ve learned. Click
the link below to return to Unit D. Print and complete the
Practice Exercise on adding sentence structure variety to
your writing. Check your answers with a tutor.
Relationship
Transition
Addition
Moreover
Furthermore
In addition
besides
Contrast
However
In contrast
Result or Effect
Consequently
Thus
Therefore
Reinforcement/Emphasis
Indeed
In fact
On the contrary
On the other hand
Accordingly
Hence
As a result
Relationship
Transition
Exemplification
For example
For instance
In particular
Time
Meanwhile (at the same time)
Subsequently (after)
Thereafter (after)
Reinforcement/Emphasis
Indeed
In fact
Exemplification
For example
For instance
In particular
Adding Variety to Sentence Structure
To make your writing more interesting,
you should try to vary your sentences in
terms of length and structure. You can
make some of your sentences long and
others short. Read the two paragraphs
on the next page.
Combine the following Simple
Sentences by making them
Complex Sentences
I love living in the city. I have a
wonderful view of the entire city. I have
an apartment. I can see the Golden Gate
Bridge. I can see many cargo ships pass
under the bridge each day. I like the
restaurants in San Francisco. I can find
wonderful food from just about every
country. I don’t like the traffic in the
city.

I love living in the city of San Francisco. I have
a wonderful view of the entire city from my
apartment window. In addition, I can see the
Golden Gate Bridge under which many cargo
ships pass each day. I also like San Francisco
because I can find wonderful restaurants with
food from just about every country; however, I
don’t like the traffic in the city.
Dependent Clauses
begin with
Subordinating Conjunctions.
Adjective clauses
Adverb clauses
That
Which
Who
Whom
Whose
After
Although
Because
Before
Since
While
When
Until
(begin with relative
pronouns)
When, Where
(these last two are not relative pronouns but may
also begin adjective clauses)
(begin with subordinating
conjunctions)
subordinating conjunctions tell where, when, how,
why, and to what extent.