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Sentence Variety 6 types 1. Simple Sentences 2. Compound Sentences 3. Complex Sentences 4. Compound-Complex 5. Sentence with Appositive Phrase 6. Sentence with Participle Phrase The Simple Sentence A simple sentence is also called an independent clause (it has one subject and one verb): I live in San Francisco. Subject Verb Compound Sentence A compound sentence is made up of two simple sentences joined by one of the following: • A semicolon • I like to study grammar; I love this class. • A conjunction (FANBOYS) • I like to study grammar, and I love this class. • A semicolon and a transitional word • I like to study grammar; therefore, I love this class Connect Using a Semicolon Independent Clause ; Independent Clause I love living in the city ; there are so many things to do. Independent Clause Independent Clause Connect Using a Coordinating Conjunction Independent Clause ,coordinating conjunction Independent Clause He couldn’t watch the show , so he decided to tape it. Independent Clause Independent Clause Coordinating Conjunctions Logical Relationship Coordinating Conjunction Addition And Contrast But, yet Choice Or, nor Cause For Result So FANBOYS Another way to remember these is… For And Nor But Or Yet So F A N B O Y S CAUTION! Do NOT use a comma every time you use the words and, or, but, nor, for, so, yet. Use a comma only when the coordinating conjunction joins two independent clauses. Simple Sentence The necklace was beautiful but expensive. Independent Clause No comma- not an independent clause Connect Using a Transition Independent Clause ; transition , Independent Clause I love San Francisco ; however, Independent Clause I hate the traffic. Independent Clause Click here to see lists of transitions. FINALLY Combine Two Sentences to make it a Compound Sentence. Use either a semicolon, coordinating conjunction or a semicolon with a transitional word She works in the city ,but She lives in the suburbs. ;however, Independent Clause ; Independent Clause Complex Sentences Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. Dependent clauses begin with key words John cannot set up his typewriter Independent Clause because the wall has no outlet. Subordinating Conjunction Dependent Clause Complex Sentence The Dependent Clause in this sentence begins with a Subordinating Conjunction She will go to school in the city Independent Clause until she finds a job. Subordinating Conjunction Dependent Clause Complex Sentences Use a comma after a dependent clause if it begins the sentence. When I first moved to the city, Subordinating Conjunction Dependent Clause Use a comma if the dependent clause is the first part of the sentence. I was afraid to drive the steep and narrow streets. Independent Clause Complex Sentence The Dependent Clause in this sentence begins with a Relative Pronoun Relative Pronoun Independent Clause I have read nearly every novel has written. that J.K. Rowling Dependent Clause Complex sentence The Dependent Clause in this sentence begins with a Relative Pronoun. Independent Clause Dr. Charles Richter devised the Richter scale, which is used to measure the magnitude of earthquakes. Relative Pronoun Dependent Clause Sentences using Appositive Phrase An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that immediately follows another noun. An appositive explains or defines the noun it follows and is set off by commas. noun Appositive Mexico City, the biggest city in the world, has many interesting archaeological sites. Mexico City = the biggest city in the world Sentences using Appositive Prase Appositives are always set off by commas. noun Appositive Denver, the capital of Colorado, is the home of the Denver Broncos, the best football team in the US. Noun Appositive Denver = the capital of Colorado Denver Broncos = the best football team in the US. Appositive An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that immediately follows another noun. An appositive explains or defines the noun it follows and is set off by commas. noun Appositiv e Sophia, Daniela’s friend, said that maybe the party would be at Adam’s house. Sentences using Appositive Another interesting aspect of Appositives is that they can always be exchanged with the nouns they modify. appositive noun The altitude of Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, is over 12,000 feet. The altitude of the capital of Tibet, Lhasa, is over 12,000 feet. Participle Phrases add description to a sentence A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. Participles begin with key words that ends in –ing or –ed. Participle phrase Simple sentence Enjoying a beautiful day at the beach, Ms Moreno took her paddle board out to the ocean. Participle Phrases add more description to a Simple Sentence Highlight the simple sentence and circle the participle phrase 1) Confused by the strange directions in the letter, Sara looked at the map. 2) Josh ran to class, rushing through the halls at breakneck speed. 3) Looking at the cats competing for the prize, Sue chose the lovely Siamese. 4) Deb played with the little German shepherd, enchanted by its adorable personality. 5) Broken into a thousand pieces, the vase lay on the hallway floor. Do you see how the phrases add more description to the subject? Practice Exercises Now you are ready to practice what you’ve learned. Click the link below to return to Unit D. Print and complete the Practice Exercise on adding sentence structure variety to your writing. Check your answers with a tutor. Relationship Transition Addition Moreover Furthermore In addition besides Contrast However In contrast Result or Effect Consequently Thus Therefore Reinforcement/Emphasis Indeed In fact On the contrary On the other hand Accordingly Hence As a result Relationship Transition Exemplification For example For instance In particular Time Meanwhile (at the same time) Subsequently (after) Thereafter (after) Reinforcement/Emphasis Indeed In fact Exemplification For example For instance In particular Adding Variety to Sentence Structure To make your writing more interesting, you should try to vary your sentences in terms of length and structure. You can make some of your sentences long and others short. Read the two paragraphs on the next page. Combine the following Simple Sentences by making them Complex Sentences I love living in the city. I have a wonderful view of the entire city. I have an apartment. I can see the Golden Gate Bridge. I can see many cargo ships pass under the bridge each day. I like the restaurants in San Francisco. I can find wonderful food from just about every country. I don’t like the traffic in the city. I love living in the city of San Francisco. I have a wonderful view of the entire city from my apartment window. In addition, I can see the Golden Gate Bridge under which many cargo ships pass each day. I also like San Francisco because I can find wonderful restaurants with food from just about every country; however, I don’t like the traffic in the city. Dependent Clauses begin with Subordinating Conjunctions. Adjective clauses Adverb clauses That Which Who Whom Whose After Although Because Before Since While When Until (begin with relative pronouns) When, Where (these last two are not relative pronouns but may also begin adjective clauses) (begin with subordinating conjunctions) subordinating conjunctions tell where, when, how, why, and to what extent.