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Discussion Questions What are the “feeling rules” in the following settings? * College Classroom * Church * Hospital If one isn’t experiencing the “correct” emotion, what form(s) might emotion work take? In American culture, are feeling rules different for men and women? Emotions and Role Attachments Role Embracement – Identifying strongly with a role and allowing it to shape how we think, feel, act, and interact with others. Role Distance – Performing role in a detached way; our sense of self is not invested in the role. Social Structure & Personality Social Structure – Consists of positions, roles, social networks. Occupational experience varies on 3 dimensions: 1. Closeness of supervision 2. Routinization of work 3. Substantive complexity of the work (Consider status at work - “status characteristics”) Occupational Roles and Physical Health 2 key ways in which occupational roles affect physical health: 1) exposing workers to health hazards, 2) stress Social Structure & Personality Job conditions that may lead to stress: * the design of tasks * management style * interpersonal relationships * work roles * career concerns * environmental conditions Social Structure & Personality We have two kinds of energy: adaptation energy, which is capable of being replenished within a 24-hour period; energy reserves, which are your stores of energy Distinction between “stress” and “stressor”: Stress is the utilization of energy beyond that which can be replenished in a 24-hour period. Stressor is an environmental event which calls for special efforts of adaptation. Social Structure & Personality David Elkind says that a person’s attitude toward stressors is extremely important in determining whether he/she will experience stress. STRESSOR -----> Interpretation----> Attitude A positive attitude will help one to cope with stressors in a way that uses energy more efficiently. A general point with regard to stress: Are we experiencing the tyranny of the urgent ? (fast-pace of life; emphasis on time, etc.) Examples? Implications? Social Structure & Personality Your place in the workplace – shaped by gender In what ways do our adult relationships and work experiences reflect our childhood socialization? Prejudice and Discrimination Origins of prejudice: Realistic Conflict Theory – Prejudice stems from competition among social groups over valued commodities or opportunities. Social Categorization – People generally divide the social world into two distinct categories: “us” and “them”. (We may commit the ultimate attribution error). Social Learning – Prejudice is learned. Stereotypes – These generalizations about the typical characteristics of members of various groups exert strong effects on the way we process information. Illusion of Out-group Homogeneity – This is the tendency to perceive persons belonging to groups other than our own as all alike. Prejudice and Discrimination Ways to combat prejudice and discrimination: Contact Hypothesis – Increase the degree of contact between different groups. (This tends to work under certain circumstances – e.g., the groups are roughly equal in status; the groups are working toward shared goals; contact between the groups is informal; contact occurs in a setting where norms favor group equality). Re-Categorization – Eliminate “us-them” boundaries. Reduce the impact of stereotypes Love Love is not just a private phenomenon; it is part of our public culture. Love is a narrative. 3 components of love: intimacy, passion, commitment What is the difference between love and infatuation? Love The Romantic-Love Ideal (5 beliefs): 1. Love at first sight. 2. One true love. 3. Love conquers all. 4. Our beloved is perfect. 5. Follow feelings. HOW WOULD YOU CRITIQUE THIS IDEAL? ARE THESE BELIEFS WIDELY ACCEPTED AND PREVALENT IN OUR CULTURE TODAY? Love Love is powerful – e.g., allows people to accomplish things; overcome great obstacles. Also, love is powerful in the sense that, for two people in a romantic relationship, love gives each power over the other. From Social Exchange Theory, consider the terms: Comparison Level (CL) – The minimum level of positive outcome one expects in a relationship. Comparison Level for Alternatives (CLalt) – The minimum level of positive outcome one will accept in a relationship, given his/her alternatives. Group Dynamics Dyadic Relationships Functions of a dyad: * Expression of feelings. * Confirmation. * Change/influence. * Creation/work. Characteristics of dyads: * Uniqueness. * Completeness. * Building block. Group Dynamics Dyadic Relationships Relationship Stages: 1. Initiating 2. Experimenting 3. Intensifying 4. Integrating 5. Bonding Group Dynamics Dyadic Relationships The Stages of Coming Apart: 1. Differentiating 2. Circumscribing 3. Stagnating 4. Avoiding 5. Terminating Group Dynamics Primary Groups – Characterized by face-to-face communication, cooperation, permanence. Secondary Groups – Characterized by formality, task-orientation, and being short-lived. Functions of group membership – i.e., why do we join particular groups? • Help satisfy psychological and social needs. • Help us achieve goals. • Provide us with knowledge and information. • Contributes to the establishment of a positive social identity. Group Dynamics “The Third Place” (Ray Oldenburg) These are places that exist outside the home and beyond the work place. Characteristics: * pure sociability * voluntary participation * diversity * novelty * common meeting ground * spontaneous * emotional expression * contributes to mental balance Group Dynamics Functions of Third Places: * “sorting areas” * “staging areas” * welfare for one another * entertainment * forum for politics * intellectual forum DO YOU HAVE ANY “THIRD PLACES”? DO WE NEED “THIRD PLACES”? Group Dynamics Social Facilitation – The finding that the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks and impairs performance on difficult tasks. Social Loafing – A reduction in individual output. Cohesiveness in groups – Exemplified by the use of “we” and “us” instead of “I” and “me”; joking & laughter; early arrival/late departure; nonverbals. Groupthink – Group decision-making style characterized by an excessive tendency among members to seek concurrence. Group Dynamics Obedience Famous study: Stanley Milgram (1960s) At least 3 factors have been identified as affecting the degree of obedience: 1. the authority figure 2. the proximity of the victim 3. the experimental procedure WOULD SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGISTS FIND LESS OBEDIENCE IF THEY CONDUCTED MILGRAM’S EXERIMENTS TODAY? Group Dynamics Conformity – The tendency to change perceptions, opinions, or behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms. Well-known social psychological studies: Sherif’s experiment in 1936 Asch’s experiment in 1951 Why do people conform? reference groups, informational influence, normative influence, identification, cohesiveness, social support How can we explain non-conformity? Group Dynamics Compliance – Efforts to influence others through direct requests. techniques: ingratiation, “foot-in-the-door,” and “door-in-the face” Deviance Sociological conception of deviance: *Deviance is much more than a personal characteristic. *Deviance can be viewed as a form of social control. Power, then, is an importance resource. *Nothing is inherently deviant. *Deviance can be understood in terms of choice, selection, and purpose. *Diversity is often labeled deviance. Deviance stigma – Any physical or social attribute or sign that devalues an actor’s social identity such that he/she is disqualified from full social acceptance. Goffman distinguished 4 types of stigma: abominations of the body, blemishes of character, tribal stigma, courtesy stigma 2 basic strategies that deviants use to manage stigma: 1. try to hide or change the stigmatizing condition 2. learn to live with the stigma Deviance Deviance in everyday life “Everyday deviances” are occasional slip-ups which temporarily mark individuals as nonconforming or awkward. In an attempt to avoid these everyday deviances, we make an effort to control: SPACE, PROPS, and BODY. Techniques we may need to draw upon: disclaimers, accounts. Deviance Social Psychological Theories of Deviance Social Control Theory – The stronger one’s bond to society, the less likely is deviant behavior. When one’s bond to society is weak or broken, then deviant behavior may result. Travis Hirschi identified 4 components of the social bond: attachment, commitment, involvement, beliefs. Deviance Differential Association Theory – Deviance is learned through association with others. The likelihood that a person will engage in deviant activity depends on the frequency of association with those who encourage norm violation compared with those who encourage conformity. Labeling Theory – Focuses on the process by which the social audience creates deviance and deviants by so defining the acts and actors that way. Collective Behavior Collective Behavior – Relatively spontaneous activity, involving a large number of people, that doesn’t conform to established norms. In situations of collective behavior, at least 4 features are possible: free play of emotions (people experience “emotional “contagion”) high degree of personal influence give and take of political competition emergence of transitory opinions and allegiances Collective Behavior Theories of collective behavior: Contagion Theory – Crowds can exert a hypnotic influence on their members. Convergence Theory – There is like-mindedness before the group comes together. Emergent Norm Theory – Patterns of behavior emerge within the crowd. Collective Behavior Examples of collective behavior: Crowds (types include casual, conventional, expressive, acting, and protest) [What kinds of crowd situations have you experienced? Can crowds create heightened conformity as well as outbursts of deviant conduct?] Riots – Characterized as highly emotional, involving violence and destruction, and no clear goal. Stages: precipitating event, confrontation, the carnival phase, siege Rumor – Unsubstantiated information spread informally. Fads & Fashions [List current fads and fashions in clothes, music, art, or some other area and determine why they are currently popular] Social Movements A social movement refers to a collection of individuals who organize together to achieve or prevent some social or political change. There is a direct link between social movements and social change. Theories: Deprivation Theory – attempting to bring about a more just state of affairs Resource Mobilization Theory – success requires money, labor, contacts with the media, etc. Social Movements What may draw people into participating in a social movement? Mass Society Theory would say that social movements attract socially isolated people. Social Networks – People may get involved because of relationships they have with others who already belong to the movement. The ideological appeal made by the movement might draw people in to the movement. Aggression Understanding Aggression Freud’s Instinct Theory – We have an innate urge to destroy. Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis – When we are frustrated, we become motivated to aggress. Arousal Transfer Model – Arousal in one situation can be transferred to a second situation. Social Learning Theory – We learn to behave aggressively by imitating others. Aggression Situational Impact on Aggression – i.e., What characteristics of a situation might lead to acts of aggression? 1. Reinforcements 2. Modeling 3. Norms (e.g., retribution, revenge) 4. Stress 5. Aggressive Cues Aggression Personal Causes of Aggression: 1. Type A behavior 2. Hostile Attribution Bias – The tendency to perceive hostile intent in others, even when it’s totally lacking. 3. Shame Gender Differences in the experience and expression of aggression? Aggression How can aggressive behavior be reduced? 1. Reducing Frustration (e.g., allocate resources more equally) 2. Punishing Aggression 3. Non-aggressive Models 4. Catharsis Also, think about the relevance of empathy. How could we cultivate empathy? Prosocial Behavior Why people help others: 1. Sociobiological Explanation – Help others to ensure survival of your genes. 2. Social Evolution Explanation – Our altruism is adaptive for the survival of society. 3. Good Mood Effect – The effect whereby a good mood increases helping behavior. 4. Negative State Relief Model – The proposition that people help others in order to counteract their own feelings of sadness or depression. Prosocial Behavior 5. Guilt – This feeling may lead us to help others in order to feel better about ourselves. 6. Social Norms – e.g., norm of reciprocity, norm of equity, norm of social responsibility 7. Personal Norms – An individual’s feeling of moral obligation to provide help when needed. 8. Characteristics of the person in need (e.g., what caused this person’s problem?) Prosocial Behavior In emergency situations, people often do not become involved; why don’t people help? Latane & Darley conducted research studies in the 1970s, arriving at the bystander effect, which is the effect whereby the presence of others inhibits helping. Steps in the decision-making process involved in emergency interventions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Notice that something is happening. Interpret the event as an emergency. Take responsibility for providing help. Decide how to help. Prosocial Behavior HOW DO YOU DEFINE “ALTRUISM”? GIVEN YOUR DEFINITION, DOES GENUINE ALTRUISM EXIST? Prosocial Behavior empathy-altruism hypothesis – The proposition that empathic concern for a person in need produces an altruistic motive for helping. So…altruism is manifested when: we take the perspective of the other, our emotional response is empathic concern, our motive is altruistic, and we gain satisfaction from the person’s reduction in distress. Research Methods Review Important Concepts: independent and dependent variables hypothesis internal and external validity experimental and control groups Basic Methods used in Social Psychology: Experiment Survey Research Participant Observation Methods Ethics in Research Studies which generated debate (e.g., Milgram’s Obedience Studies, Zimbardo’s Prison Study) Importance of informed consent and debriefing. informed consent – Giving research participants as full a description of the procedures as possible, prior to their participation. debriefing – After the procedure, giving the participants a full explanation of the study.