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Sociology Grade 12
Grade 12 Sociology
Quarter Three Revision
Part 1(Answered)
Supply the missing word (s) in each of the statements below.
1) The bourgeoisie are the owners of the means of production in a capitalist society.
2) Old money and new money are two sections of the upper class in the American society.
3) The power the police have to decide who is actually arrested is called police discretion.
4) Racial profiling is the practice of assuming that nonwhite Americans are more likely to commit a
crime than white Americans.
5) Criminologists are social scientists who study criminal behavior.
6) Large-scale organizations of professional criminals that control some vice or legitimate business
through violence or the threat of violence are known as crime syndicates.
7) Deviance is any behavior that violates significant social norms.
8) A person’s wealth consists of his assets (the value of everything the person owns) in addition to his
income (money earned through salaries, investment returns, or other capital gains).
9) A social class is a grouping of people with similar levels of wealth, power, and prestige.
10) Offenses committed by people of high social status in the course of their professional lives are called
white collar crimes.
11) Power is the ability to control the behavior of others, with or without their consent.
12) Cultural transmission theory suggests that deviance is learnt through interaction with others who are
involved in deviant behavior and in the transmission of deviant norms and values.
13) The movement between or within social classes is known as social mobility.
14) In the subjective method individuals are asked to determine their own social rank.
15) Marriage outside one’s social category is called exogamy while marriage inside one’s social category
is known as endogamy.
16) The workers who sell their labor in exchange for wages are called proletariat.
17) A stigma is a mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society.
18) Socioeconomic status is a rating used for ranking people according to wealth, power, and prestige.
19) People move between strata in an open system. However, people are not allowed to practice exogamy
in a closed system.
20) Anomie is the situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or no longer applicable.
21) Labeling theory focuses on how individuals come to be identified as deviant, and believes that all
people commit deviance, yet not everyone is labeled as deviant.
22) Plea bargaining is the process of legal negotiation that allows an accused person to plead guilty to a
lesser charge in return for a lighter sentence.
23) Corrections are sanctions used to punish criminals.
Sociology Grade 12
24) The division of society into categories, ranks, or classes is known as social stratification.
25) Caste system is a closed system in which resources and social rewards are distributed on the basis of
ascribed statuses.
26) Horizontal mobility is the movement within a social class or stratum.
27) Vertical mobility is the movement between social classes or strata.
Grade 12 Sociology
Quarter Three Revision
Part 2 (Answered)
Answer The Following Questions:
1) What are the negative social reactions that result from being labeled deviant?
A person labeled as deviant has a “spoiled social identity.” He or she is no longer seen as being
normal or whole.
2) In a graphic organizer, identify the social functions of deviance?
3) Explain the two types of deviance. Which type results in the individual being labeled as deviant?
a ) Primary deviance: is the occasional violation of norms. Individuals who commit acts of primary
deviance don’t see themselves as deviant and neither does society. //
b) Secondary deviance: refers to deviance as a lifestyle and this is the type that results in the individual
being labeled as deviant and believing the label.
4) Compare and contrast how the conflict perspective explains deviance and how the functionalist
perspective explains deviance.
Functionalist: as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structures of society//
Conflict theorists: as the result of competition and social inequality//
5) A ) Explain how a crime is different from a violation of a moral code.
A crime is any action labeled as such by those in authority and is prohibited by law. There are no laws
for violating moral code.
B ) Give an example for when an act is a crime and an example for when an act is considered a violation
of moral code.
Suggested answer: If one person holds another person underwater until the individual dies, the act is
considered murder. If a person stands by and watches another person drown without going to their
assistance, it is considered a violation of the moral code.
Sociology Grade 12
6) What role does each component of the criminal- justice system serve?
Police: arrest criminals and offenders.// Courts: determine the guilt or innocence of the accuses and
assign punishment.// Corrections: carry out the punishment.// Juvenile: is a special system for
7) How do the American police decide who is arrested?
They consider the seriousness of the offense, the wishes of the victim, the attitude of the suspect and
whether bystanders were present.
8) How might the fact that African Americans who make 13% of the population make 30% of arrests
in USA be explained?
Police unjustly assume that African Americans are more likely to commit crimes than the whites.
9) Compare and contrast the two major systems of social stratification.
Compare: They are both systems of social stratification. They both determine the level of social
inequality in a society.//
Caste system: is a closed system in which resources and social rewards are distributed on the basis of
ascribed statuses. Individuals have no control and there is no social mobility.//
Class system: is an open system in which the distribution of scarce resources and rewards is determined on
the basis of achieved statuses. There can be social mobility and individuals have some control over their
10) How do wealth, power, and prestige affect social rankings?
Sociologists use these social factors to calculate people’s socioeconomic status or social ranking.
Generally, the higher one’s socioeconomic status, the higher one’s social ranking.
11) What determines the level of social inequality in a society?
What determines the level of social inequality in a society is how open or closed a society’s stratification
system is.
12) Use a graphic organizer to identify and describe the three dimensions of stratification.
13) Use a graphic organizer to identify and describe the classes of the American class system.
Sociology Grade 12
14) Explain the three techniques that sociologists use to determine social class.
Reputational: individuals in a community rank other community members based on what they know of
their characters and lifestyles. //
Subjective: individuals asked to determine their own social rank. //
Objective: statistical method to determine social class by income, occupation, and education
15) What are the structural causes of upward mobility?
The structural causes of upward mobility: a) advances in technology// b) changing in merchandising
patterns //c) increase in the level of education.
16) What is the structural cause of downward mobility?
The structural cause of downward mobility: a) Changes in the economy
17) How are the lower middle class and upper middle class alike?
Both hold white-collar jobs that require education.
18) How do social classes reflect social inequality?
Wealthier people have more and greater opportunities for education and jobs.