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Think of and write down four words that didn’t exist 20 years ago Think of two words and write down two words that didn’t exist 5 years ago • Speakers of different languages think about the world in quite different ways. • This view is sometimes called the WhorfSapir hypothesis, after the linguists who made it famous - that we know the world only in terms of our language. • Language then determines our cultural reality. What is the English Translation for these words? • Tartle Scottish – The act of hesitating while introducing someone because you’ve forgotten their name • Prozvonit Czech – This word means to call a mobile phone and let it ring once so that the other person will call back, saving the first caller money. • Kyoikumama Japanese – “A mother who relentlessly pushes her children toward academic achievement” • Iktsuarpok Inuit – “To go outside to check if anyone is coming.” • Mamihlapinatapei Yagan (indigenous language of Tierra del Fuego) – “the wordless, yet meaningful look shared by two people who both desire to initiate something but are both reluctant to start” Do Now: What do these words mean? • Schadenfreude German – Quite famous for its meaning that somehow other languages neglected to recognize, this refers to the feeling of pleasure derived by seeing another’s misfortune. I guess “America’s Funniest Moments of Schadenfreude” just didn’t have the same ring to it. • L’appel du vide French – “The call of the void” is this French expression’s literal translation, but more significantly it’s used to describe the instinctive urge to jump from high Do Now: • What was one belief you had that changed? • What is one belief you have that hasn’t changed? • If you were to choose one word to sum up your value system…what would it be? Values and Beliefs • Values are defined as the standards by which people assess desirability, goodness, and beauty; they are broad principles • Beliefs - specific statements that people hold to be true. Beliefs are learned through socialization and help shape how we perceive our surroundings and how our personality develops. Material and Nonmaterial Culture • Sociologists describe two interrelated aspects of human culture: the physical objects of the culture (Material Culture) and the ideas associated with these objects. (Non-material Culture). Homes, neighborhoods, cities, schools, churches, synagogues, temples, mosques, offices, factories and plants, tools, means of production, colleges, cars, boots, purses, phones, clothes, furniture, goods and products, stores, and so forth. • When considering non-material culture, sociologists refer to several processes that a culture uses to shape its members' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. • Four of the most important of these are symbols, language, values, and norms. • Norms vary in their degree of importance. Mores distinguish between right and wrong • Folkways distinguish between right and rude. Norms, Folkways, Mores, Taboos & Laws • Norms are defined as rules that guide behavior. • Proscriptive Norms: mandate what we should not do • Prescriptive Norms: stating what we should do. They can change over time, as illustrated by norms regarding sexual behavior. What is Ideal Culture? • Values and norms are not descriptions of actual behavior but rather reflect how we believe members of a culture should behave. • Give an example of this…for example, smoking is unhealthy and leads to health problems. Nobody should smoke. Social Control • Rewards conformity and punishes deviance. • Deviance: deviating from the norm • Through socialization we internalize cultural norms and impose constraints on our own behavior. • The "breaking" of an internalized norm results in guilt and shame. • On the Index Card, list something you did that you would consider abnormal • On the Index Card, list something you did that was illegal. • (no names = anonymous) What is Deviance? • In sociology, deviance is simply any violation of society’s norms. • Odd, different or unacceptable behavior • Deviance can range from something minor, such as a traffic violation, to something major, such as murder. • Deviance can be positive like helping an elderly person across the street. What is Deviance? • Deviance is differing from the norm • It is relative to time and place because what is considered deviant in one social context may be non-deviant in another (e.g., fighting during a hockey game vs. fighting in a nursing home). • Killing another human is considered wrong except when governments permit it during warfare or selfdefense. • Age: A five-year-old can cry in a supermarket without being considered deviant, but an older child or an adult = not deviant • Location: A person speaking loudly during a church service = deviant. Person speaking loudly at a party = not deviant • Social status: A famous actor can skip to the front of a long line of people waiting to get into a popular club = not deviant, but a non-famous person = deviant. Deviance is relative to place Asian United States Canada United States United States Avoiding eye contact is considered polite The O.K. signal expresses approval Thumbs upused for hitch hiking, or approving of something Someone may whistle when happy. Whistling can express approval, as in cheering at a public event. United States Japan United States Nigeria Europe When saying hello or talking to someone it is impolite to not look directly at the person. Using your middle finger is The O.K. signal very offensive. This is a rude means that you Used in place gesture in are asking for of Nigeria. money. inappropriate language. Whistling may be a sign of disapproval at public events. • The Whorf-Sapir hypothesis states that we know the world only in terms of our language. • Values are defined as the standards by which people assess desirability, goodness, and beauty; they are broad principles • Beliefs - specific statements that people hold to be true. • Culture is defined as the values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that constitute a people's way of life. Material Culture is the objects we use and Non-material Culture is the values we give them. Mores distinguish between right and wrong • Folkways distinguish between right and rude • Proscriptive Norms: mandate what we should not do • Prescriptive Norms: stating what we should do. • Deviance: not conforming to the “norm”. Relative to time and place. • Ideal Culture: The way things SHOULD be...not how they are. Are you a member of these groups? Boy Scouts Girl Scouts Athletic Team Volunteer Organization Hobby Enthusiast Group Political Group Ethnic/Religious Group What are Subcultures? • Subcultures are groups within a group whose values and behavior are distinctly differently from the dominant culture. • Different way of looking at life, but still compatible with the main culture • Occupations, (police, fire, corrections, medical), Social interests, (Boy Scouts, hunters, fraternities), Religions,(Catholics, Muslims, Jehovah Witnesses), Politics, (gun rights, pro-life, environmentalists. Ethnicities,(Irish, Native American, Latino) Subcultures Subcultures What are Countercultures? • Countercultures include groups of people whose values and norms are in opposition to the dominant culture. • Challenge the dominant culture – often confrontational. Some are negative: • Satanists, Skinheads, Hell’s Angels, KKK • Some are positive: Hippies contributed civil rights, environmental reforms while being criticized by the dominant culture by their “deviant” appearance. Countercultures What is a Cult • They are subject to isolation from friends, relatives and the mainstream culture and their access to information is severely controlled • Studies performed by those who believe that some religious groups do practice mind control have identified a number of key steps in coercive persuasion • People are put in physical or emotionally distressing situations; • Their problems are reduced to one simple explanation, which is repeatedly emphasized; • They receive what seems to be unconditional love, acceptance, and attention from a charismatic leader or group; • They get a new identity based on the group; • Subcultures are groups within a group whose values and behavior are distinctly differently from the dominant culture. • Different way of looking at life, but still compatible with the main culture – often part of regular life • Countercultures include groups of people whose values and norms are in opposition to the dominant culture. Challenge the dominant culture – often confrontational. Some are negative a few are positive. • Cults are organizations that are camouflaged as legitimate groups but slowly isolate members by coercion. Can you think of any counter cultures you’ve come in contact with?