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CHAPTER 6.4 The Building Blocks of Life
Answer the study guide questions as completely as possible on a separate sheet of paper (or computer – if you type
your answers please make sure to separate the question from your answer with color or bold or highlighting THANK
YOU). Some of the questions ask you to draw molecules. Make your drawings accurate and complete. Add color to
highlight important parts of the sketch. As you go through the questions, please write any questions you have.
What is an organic compound? A molecule that contains carbon
Besides carbon, name 3 other elements that make up most organic compounds. Hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen
3. How many electrons are in the outermost energy level of carbon? How many does it need to have this energy
level filled? 4, 4
4. How many covalent bonds can carbon form? 4
5. Name 3 structural shapes that form whenever carbon atoms bond to other carbon atoms. Straight chains,
branches and rings
How many electrons are being shared in a single covalent bond? double covalent bond? triple covalent bond?
quadruple covalent bond? 2, 4, 6, 8
Explain what is meant by a functional group and tell what effect they have on the molecules they are attached
to. A functional group is a group of molecules that attaches to another molecule and brings with it special
properties. Functional groups attached to hydrocarbons make them hydrophilic
8. Write the formula for these functional groups --- hydroxyl, carboxyl, phosphate group, and amino group.
9. Hydroxyl groups attached to carbon atoms forms an ______alchol_______.
10. Large carbon molecules are built from smaller, simpler molecules called ____monomers________.
11. Large carbon molecules made of monomers are called ________polymers_______.
12. What are large polymers called? macromolecules
13. What type of reaction links monomers to make polymers? Condensation/dehydration
14. Sketch a molecule of sucrose (table sugar) formed from condensation. Name the 2 sugars that were combined
to form sucrose. Glucose and fructose
15. Condensation reactions involve the removal of a molecule of ____water________.
16. What reaction is used to breakdown polymers? Is water added or removed? How does this compare to
condensation? Hydrolysis, added, opposite process as condensation
17. All life processes require a constant supply of ____________. Name the molecule used by cells to get energy.
Give its abbreviation.
18. ATP contains what 3 functional groups covalently bonded together? Write the formula for this functional group.
CHAPTER 6.4 The Building Blocks of Life
19. Which bonded phosphate group on ATP releases the MOST energy when broken?
20. Name the 4 main classes of macromolecules (organic molecules) & tell what 3 elements all of these contain.
Carbohydrates – CHO
Lipids – CHO(P)
Proteins – CHON(S)
Nucleic Acids – CHNOP
Carbohydrates store energy for organisms!
21. In what ratio are hydrogen & oxygen atoms in carbohydrates? 2:1
22. In what 3 forms do carbohydrates exist? Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
23. What are the monomers of carbohydrates called? What is their common name? Give the ratio of carbons,
hydrogens, & oxygens. Monosaccharides, simple sugars, 1:2:1
24. Name the 3 MOST common monosaccharides. Glucose, fructose and galactose
25. Sketch & label a molecule of each of these monosaccharides. How do they compare? Write the chemical
formula for all three. they are isomers – same formula (C6H12O6) but different structure
26. Because all 3 simple sugars have the same chemical, but different structural formulas, they are called
27. What are double sugars called? Name & describe the process that forms them. Disaccharides – condensation
reactions join them together and the process involves removing a H and an OH from two of the molecules and
joining them together. The OH and H join together to form water.
28. Name a disaccharide. Maltose, sucrose
29. What forms a polysaccharide? Name a polysaccharide found in animals. Name 2 found in plants? joining
monosaccharides together. Animals – glycogen, Plants – Cellulose and starch
30. What chemical reaction formed these large molecule? What reaction would be needed to break these
molecules? Condensation, hydrolysis
CHAPTER 6.4 The Building Blocks of Life
Proteins are used to build cells, & they act as enzymes!
31. What are the 4 main elements making up proteins? How many covalent bonds does each of these elements
form? Carbon-4 hydrogen-1 nitrogen-3 and oxygen-2
32. Sketch these two amino acids --- glycine & alanine. Circle the center carbon, place a triangle around the amino
group, and put a box around the carboxyl group.
33. What are the monomers of proteins called? How many are there? Name the 4 things bonded to the center
carbon of this monomer. Amino acids, 20, a hydrogen an amino group a carboxyl group and an R group
34. The main difference among amino acids is their _____R______ group. What is the R-group on glycine? on
35. Differences in R-groups give different proteins different _______structures = different functions_______.
36. How does a dipeptide form? Sketch the dipeptide formed from glycine and alanine. What molecule had to be
removed to join these 2 amino acids? Joining two amino acids together by condensation reaction, water
37. What do you call the covalent bonds that hold amino acids together? Put a box around these bond in the sketch
you did on question 32. Peptide bonds
38. Long chains of amino acids are called _______polypeptides____________ and these join together to make a
39. Hydrogen bonding among individual amino acids in a chain cause what effect on the protein's shape? Coiling or
pleating (primary structure) or folding (tertiary)
40. What is the effect of temperature on protein shape? Give an example of this. Denaturing = unfolding of a
protein and a loss of function.
41. Most proteins act as catalysts or ________enzymes__________ inside of cells.
42. The substance an enzyme is acting upon is called the ______substrate_______ and it must ___fit/bond___ into
a place called the active site on the enzyme.
43. When a substrate joins with an enzyme, what effect does this have on chemical bonding of that substrate? Is
the enzyme affected temporarily or permanently? How is it affected? The bonds of the substrate are weakened.
The enzyme is temporarily changed because its active site alters to fit the substrate
44. When chemical bonds in a substrate are weakened, what effect does this have on activation energy needed to
start the reaction? Lowers the activation energy needed for the reaction to occur
CHAPTER 6.4 The Building Blocks of Life
45. After the reaction, what happens to the products? Can the enzyme be re-used & why? Products are released
and the enzyme shape returns to normal. The enzyme is recycled.
46. Besides temperature, what else can affect how an enzyme works by changing the enzyme's shape? Can the
reaction still take place? pH, salts and mechanical agitation. No the reaction can’t take place if the enzyme
active site has been changed too much because the substrate won’t fit.
Lipids include fats that are used for long-term energy storage!
47. Are lipids polar or nonpolar? What happens to lipids when they are placed in water? Non polar, they separate
from water
48. Compared to carbohydrates, what is true about the ratio of carbon & hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms? If a
compound has more bonds, what can it store more of in those bonds? Much greater ratio than 2:1, stores more
energy in the bonds
49. Most lipids are made of ______fatty________ acids. Describe their shape. What functional group is found on
the head end of the molecule? Fatty acids have a carboxyl group attached to a hydrocarbon chain
50. Sketch these 2 fatty acids --- palmitic & linoleic. Circle the carboxyl group on the "head" of the molecule. Is this
end polar or nonpolar? Will this end be attracted to or repelled by water? Carboxyl end is polar, attracted
51. Are both ends of a fatty acid polar? Explain. No the hydrocarbon chain is hydrophobic and non polar
52. Hydophilic means water _____loving______. Which end of a fatty acid is hydrophilic? The carboxyl group end.
The nonpolar end of a fatty acid is said to be _______hydrophobic________ or "water fearing".
53. Which end of a fatty acid chain WOULD dissolve in water? Which WOULDN'T? Would = carboxyl end,
Wouldn’t=hydrocarbon tail
54. In what type of fatty acid are there only single bonds in the carbon chain? Name one such fatty acid. Saturated
55. What type of bond appears in an unsaturated fatty acid? Double bonds Give an example of an unsaturated fatty
acid. Go back to your fatty acid drawings in question 50 and put a box around the double bond in the
unsaturated fatty acid.
56. Name the 3 groups of complex lipids. Sterols and waxes
57. What makes up a triglyceride? Glycerol and 3 fatty acids What is the difference between a saturated &
unsaturated triglyceride? Saturated = all single bonds, max number of hydrogens, solid at room temp
Unsaturated = at least one double bond, missing at least 2 hydrogen, liquid at room temp
CHAPTER 6.4 The Building Blocks of Life
58. What type of triglycerides tends to be solids at room temperature & why? Which are liquids & why? Saturated =
solid because the single bonds keep the fatty acid chain straight and they can pack tightly together. Unsaturated
= liquid because the double bonds bend the fatty acid chain and they can’t pack tightly together.
59. What type of triglyceride would this substance be --- vegetable oil? butter & shortening? Oil – unsaturated,
butter = saturated
60. What makes up a phospholipid? How are they different from triglycerides? What main part of a cell is made of
phospholipids? Glycerol, 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group. Triglycerides have a glycerol and 3 fatty acids. Cell
61. What is meant by a lipid bilayer? What makes this such an effective barrier between the inside & the outside of
the cell? Cell membrane is a double layer of phospholipids.
62. Wax is another complex lipid. Describe its structure.
63. Waxes are highly ______hydrophobic___________. Explain how plants make use of this property? Too keep
water in and prevent water loss animals? As a waterproofing substance (ex-waxy fur coating)
64. What makes up steroids? To what group of organic compounds do steroids belong? How are they used in
animals? Carbon rings, lipids, used to make hormones
65. Name a steroid made by the body & used by nerve cells.
66. Nucleic acids store genetic information for cells!
67. Give the name & abbreviation for 2 nucleic acids found in cells. DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid, RNA – ribonucleic
68. DNA and RNA are both examples of _____nucleic acids________ made of linked monomers called
_________nucleotides_______. The instructions in these molecules is used to make _____proteins_______.
69. Name the 3 parts to a nucleotide then draw and label one. 5 carbon sugar, nitrogen base and a phosphate