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Section 3 – The Late Republic
What you should have learned from
the reading
Roman Territory Grows
• With the Romans’ creating a
successful republic, many
surrounding areas attacked
in order to take over the city.
• Rome’s organized army was
able to successfully control
most of the Italian peninsula.
• The army was broken into
legions, or groups of 6,000
• Legions were further broken
into groups of 100 soldiers,
called centuries.
Roman Economy Flourishes
• As Rome grew, farmers could
no longer grow enough food
to support the population.
• Merchants began to trade
with surrounding lands.
• In order to pay for the
needed goods, Romans made
coins out of precious metals,
which began to show up
around the Mediterranean
The Punic Wars
• Romans began to
expand their territory
beyond just the Italian
• The Punic Wars were
one of the biggest wars
they fought.
• The Punic Wars were
fought against Carthage,
a city in North Africa.
used over
The Punic Wars
• Punic War #1 : Carthage sent
troops to Sicily, so the Romans
spent 20 years kicking them out
and taking over the island.
• Punic War #2 : Carthage attacked
the city of Rome and nearly won.
However, Hannibal lost when
Rome attacked Carthage, causing
Hannibal to return home.
• Punic War #3 : Rome attacked
Carthage, won the war, burned
the city, and took survivors home
as slaves. Rome took over
northern Africa too.
The Punic Wars lasted 118 years.
After the Punic
Wars, Rome
most of the
land around
the M. Sea.
So, Things Are Great in Rome, Right?
• Wrong! The rich were
getting richer and the poor
were getting poorer.
• Not only were the rich
getting richer, but they
were doing it by using
public land for farming
purposes and doing so
• As you can imagine, this
upset many poor Romans.
Brother :
and Gaius
Gaius was also killed
for his ideas to help
poor Romans.
Tiberius wanted to use the illegally stolen
land for farms for the poor, which caused
riots. Tiberius was a casualty of those riots.
More Change for Rome : Marius and
Gaius Marius
• The Roman army began
to run out of soldiers.
• Gaius Marius, a consul
at the time, decided to
invite the poor to join
the army.
Sulla later
named himself
dictator after
winning a civil
war against
• This allowed for the poor
to earn money finally,
which made them
respect Marius a great
• Further problems for
Rome arose when a
former gladiator led
a revolt of slaves.
• Spartacus’ army was
able to defeat a
portion of the Roman
army and even take
over much of
southern Italy.
is all over
the place!
However, when Spartacus eventually
died in battle, his rebellion fell apart.
The Roman government executed 6,000
slaves in hopes of keeping them from
rebelling again.