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Semester Exam Review Packet
Anatomy & Physiology
Name_______________________
Period # _______
1. Contrast the terms “anatomy” and “physiology”, and say how they are related.
2. Define and contrast the terms “absorption” and “assimilation”.
3. Order the following from smallest to largest:
___ Organ System
___ Tissue
___ Organelle
___ Atom
___Macromolecule
___Cell
___Organ
___Molecule
4. Describe the body in anatomical position.
5. Review your body section diagrams; be able to define and recognize the body planes including
sagittal, transverse, coronal, etc.
6. List major functions and organs of the following body systems:
IntegumentarySkeletalMuscularNervousEndocrineCardiovascularLymphatic-
DigestiveRespiratoryUrinaryReproductive7. Define:
Superior/Inferior:
Anterior/Posterior:
Medial/Lateral:
Proximal/Distal:
8. Name the three types of muscle tissue and explain what each does.
9. What is an extracellular matrix and where is it found?
10. If given a diagram of the human skeletal system, be able to label bones we have studied.
11. List the four different types of bones and give examples of each.
12. What binds bone to muscle? Bone to bone?
13. List the functions of each of the following parts of bone:
a. Periosteum-
b. spongy bone-
c. Haversian canals-
d. calcium-
e. collagen-
14. State whether the following bones are part of the (a) axial skeleton or (b) appendicular skeleton:
VertebraeTibiaFrontal BoneSternum-
15. Define the movement and give examples of the following joints:
Fibrous-
Ball and Socket-
Hinge-
Saddle-
Gliding-
Pivot-
16. Number the following muscle structures from smallest to largest:
___ Myofibril
___ Fascicle
___Muscle fiber
___Myofilament
___Sarcomere
17. Thick filaments of myofibrils are made up of the protein ___________ while thin filaments are
made up of the protein _____________.
18. The __________ has a zone of overlap between thin and thick filaments, while the
_____________ only contains thick filaments. The zone with only thin filaments is known as the
___________.
19. Define inversion and origin. How are the two related?
20. Name the neurotransmitter that stimulates muscle contraction and describe it’s significance.
21. Match the description to the type of muscle it best describes.
____ Striated
____Involuntary
____Muscle of the Heart
____Monomucleated
____Facilitates in locomotion
a. Skeletal Muscle
b. Smooth Muscle
c. Cardiac Muscle
22. If given a diagram of the human muscular system, be able to identify specific muscles given to you.
ie: pectoralis major, deltoid
23. If given word bank of muscles, be able to match names of muscle to their specific functions within
the body.
24. Name and contrast the 2 divisions of the nervous system and describe what they are composed of.
25. Large axons are enclosed by sheaths of ___________, produced by ____________. Narrow
gaps between the two are called __________________.
26. What causes polarization of a neuron’s potential? Depolarization?
27. Describe the difference between a polarized vs. a depolarized neuron. What charge will they have?
28. Describe how drugs can interfere with a neurotransmitter’s performance.
29. If given a diagram, label the parts of a synapse.
30. What is an action potential? What is a threshold? How are the two related?
31. Match the description with the correct brain lobe/part.
a.parietal lobe
e.hypothalamus
i. occipital lobe
b. thalamus
f. brain stem
j. frontal lobe
c. temporal lobe
d. pons
g. cerebellum
h. medulla oblongata
k. corpus callosum
____ sense of smell, hearing, helps us perform complex visual tasks
____controls breathing rate
____receives and relays messages from sense organs
____made up of the pons and medulla oblongata
____ “goal directed” behaviors
____coordinates muscle activity
____ part of cerebrum located at the sides of the head and above the ears
____controls vision
____controls blood pressure, respiration, coughing and sneezing
32. If given a diagram of the brain, be able to label the different lobes and parts.
33. Describe the following conditions:
CVA--_______________________________________________________
Coma--______________________________________________________
Alzheimer’s disease--______________________________________________
34. Describe the 4 components of blood. Of these, which is most common? Which is least common?
35. What is the average temperature of blood? pH? What color is blood?
36. Describe a mature erythrocyte.
37. Explain the viability of the four different components of blood.
38. Where are blood cells produced in the body?
39. A person who is A+ could receive blood from ___________________ and could donate to
________________________
40. A person who is AB- could receive blood from __________________ and could donate to
________________________
41. Which of the three layers of the heart makes up the heart’s conduction system?
42. What is the Sinoatrial Node responsible for?
43. Sequence the main components of the heart’s conduction system:
____ Atrioventricular Node
____Purkinje Fibers
____Sinoatrial Node
____Bundle Branches
____Atrioventricular Bundle
44. Describe characteristics of the cardiac conduction system.
45. If given a diagram of the heart, be able to label the different parts and know the path the blood
flows through the heart.
46. Which chamber of the heart contains the thickest walls?
47. Which chamber of the heart receives blood from the left atrium? Where is that blood then sent?
48. Use the terms given, choose the term which is best described by the descriptions:
___ Carries blood under low pressure
___ Where gas exchange takes place
___ Made from elastic fibers
___Largest is the Inferior Vena Cava
___Moves blood away from the heart
___ Made of three layers, but middle layer is poorly developed
___Contains many valves
a. Veins
b. Arteries
c. Capillaries