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Crusades • 11th & 13th centuries, European Christians carried out a series of military expeditions to take back the holy land from the Muslims • Seljuk Turks won the battle of Manzikert & threatened Constantinople • Crusades began when Pope Urban II responded to the request of Alexius I to liberate Jerusalem & Palestine • Urban II called for crusades @ infidels • Infidels were the non believers = Muslims, Jews Alexius I Asked For Help and Urban II Called For the First Crusade First Crusades • Mostly French knights = captured Antioch in 1098 & Jerusalem in 1099 • Massacred Muslim & Jewish inhabitants • 4 Latin Crusader states were established that lasted 100 years • 1120’s, Muslims began to strike back which led to another Crusade nd 2 Crusade • The fall of a Latin Kingdom led to the call of another crusade • Saint Bernard of Clairvaux called for the crusade & got the support of King Louis VII of France & Conrad III of Germany • 2nd Crusade was a total failure • 1187, Jerusalem fell to Saladin • 3 important rulers then agreed to begin a third Crusade Louis VII and Conrad III Respond To Bernard of Clairvaux’s Call For a Second Crusade Saladin’s Capture of Jerusalem Sparked the Third Crusade rd 3 Crusade • Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, Richard I (Richard the Lionhearted) of England, Phillip II of Augustus of France • Members of the 3rd arrived in the East by 1189 & encountered problems • Barbarossa drowned while swimming in a river • English & French had success with their naval fleets against coastal cities, but failed as they moved inland • Richard I negotiated a settlement with Saladin to allow Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem Philip II, Frederick I And Richard I Responded 4th Crusade • 6 years after the death of Saladin in 1193, Pope Innocent III initiated the 4th crusade • On their way to the East became involved a conflict with the Byzantine Empire over the succession to the Byzantine throne • Crusaders diverted to Constantinople & sacked the city in 1204/ Byzantine empire was reestablished in 1261 but was never as powerful • Ottoman Turks eventually conquered Byzantine 190 years later Osman: Founder Of the Ottoman Turks Sultan Mahmet II: Conqueror of Constantinople Results of the Crusades Increased wealth of Italian city-states like Genoa and Venice. Began Jewish persecution and genocide. Started the breakdown of feudalism and an increase in the power of kings. Improved technology such as better ships and maps, and skills in siege techniques and weapons.