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Transcript
HONORS BIOLOGY
Chapter 1 Test Review
Name ____________
These are topics and vocabulary terms covered in this chapter which may appear on the chapter test.
Also see pp. 13-14 in text for more review.
Core Concepts in Biology
Intro: pelican traits, DDT effect on birds
1. Hierarchy of organization
 Biosphere  ecosystem - community – population - organism
 Organism  system – organ – tissue – cell - organelle - molecule - atom
2. Interconnections in Nature
 Nutrient substances cycle between living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic)
o Oxygen, CO2, water, nitrogen and other compounds
 Roles in an ecosystem --producer/consumer/decomposer(saprobe)
 Energy flows one-way: light  chemical energy  cellular work heat
3. Cells are structural and functional unit of life
 Prokaryote/eukaryote: basic differences, shared traits, what has each type
 eukaryotic have compartments (organelles), can specialize, form multicelled
4. Unity of life – all organisms use same basic molecules, same life processes
 Shared genetic code, DNA and RNA
 Same traits of life – energy, exchange, organized, respond, reproduce. . .
 Viruses – few traits of life, not cells
5. Life processes maintain life
 Metabolism: all chemical reactions of life
o Catabolic - break down; anabolic – build up
o Homeostasis – stable internal environment
o Synthesis – make any needed molecule from smaller compounds
 Nutrition: make or get food (auto/heterotrophs), process food for cell use
o Digestive system - stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas
 Transport – move materials in cells and organisms
o Circulatory system - heart, blood, arteries and veins
 Respiration: get energy from food, aerobic/anaerobic
o In all cells; for gas exchange: respiratory system - lungs, airway
 Excretion: remove chemical wastes, from cells and organism
o Excretory system: kidneys, bladder, liver, lungs, skin
 Reproduction: make new cells or organism
o Asexual – one parent, genetically identical offspring
o Sexual – two parents, offspring are genetic mix of both
o Species - organisms look similar, can produce fertile offspring
o Hybrid – two related species mate, does not make a new species
 Growth (more cells), development (mature as organism gets older)
o Differentiation – cells specialize to perform different functions
o Stem cells: unspecialized cells, form different kinds of tissues
 Totipotent- all kinds of tissues; multipotent – many kinds
 Regulation: control kinds and rates of chemical reactions
o Respond to external and internal stimuli
o Two systems in humans: nervous – brain, nerves; rapid response
 Endocrine – glands make hormones (chemical messengers)
 Affect only specific target organs
 Slower response but lasts longer
6. Diversity of Life
 3 Domains: Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya
o Bacteria and Archaea – prokaryotes, differ chemically, cell walls
o Eukaryae – all cells with a nucleus
 4 kingdoms, differ in cell structure, modes of nutrition
 Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista
7. Evolution – explains unity and diversity
 Unity: common ancestry – similar structures and organization, same
molecules, life processes, life traits
 Diversity – different adaptations for different environments
o Darwin: “Descent with modification”
 Structure and Function “Form follows function”
o features have evolved to do a function best
 Natural selection: competition and variation, adaptations help survival
o survivors reproduce – small changes over time can make a new
species
Scientific study
 Discovery/observation, and experimentation- tries to explain nature
 Controlled studies: two identical groups or set-ups, except for one thing
o Control set-up: has original set of variables
o Test or Experimental set-up: has one variable different from control
o Independent variable – manipulated, the one you change
o dependent variable – responds, depends on the one you changed
 Hypothesis – possible solution to a problem, can be tested
 Theory – accepted explanation for a natural occurrence, supported by data