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To My Presentation Of
By Pra-YasH New-Pane
Perception is one of the important cognitive factors of individual
Perception is a process by which an individual selects, organizes and
interprets stimuli into a meaningful picture of the environment.
Differs from one person to another depending upon needs, values and
People respond to situations on the basis of their perception about the
reality rather than reality itself.
Nature/Feature of Perception
Base of every individual’s Behaviour.
Psychological/cognitive process.
Differs from person to person and situation to situation.
Not always based on reality.
Directly related to motivation and personality.
Can be developed.
Perception Process (Model)
Environmental Stimuli
Selective Attention
Organization and
Emotions and
Perceived inputs are the objectives, events, people etc.
They are received by the perceiver.
It begins when environmental stimuli are received through our five
sense organs.
Five sense organs are Eye(Seeing), Ear(Hearing), Skin(Feeling), Nose
(Smelling), Toung(Tasting).
The inputs received through sense organs are processed through the three subprocesses.
Selection : The process of filtering information received by our sense organ is
called selective perception. The selective perception involves two
psychological principles:
a) Figure – Ground principle
b) Relevancy principle
Organization: Perceptual organization is the process by which we group
selected information.
a) Grouping
b) Closure (Bridging the gap)
c) Simplification
Interpretation: It is highly subjective and judgmental in nature which is
influenced by many factors and without it perceive information would be
The output of perception can be seen in the form of Behaviours and
They can be feelings, actions, attitudes etc.
Perceptual Errors
Selective Perception
Halo Effect
Perceptual Errors
Contrast Effect
Selective Perception: People selectively interpret what they see on
the basis of their interest, background, experiences and attitudes.
Halo Effect: It refers to the tendency of judging person entirely on the
basis of a single trait which may be favorable or unfavorable.
Stereotyping: It means classifying people and event into already
known general categories or groups.
Contrast Effect: It occurs when we evaluate a person’s characteristics
that are affect by the comparison with other people.
Projection: It refers to the tendency of the people to see their own
trails in other people.
Impression: We frequently from impression of others on the first sight.
( First impression is the last impression )
Principle of Perpetual Selection
Intensity: More intense the stimulus, the more likely it is to be
Size: Larger an external factor, the more likely it is to be perceived and vice
Contrast: The external stimuli that stand out against the background or that
are not what people are expecting will perceive more attention.
Repetition: The Repeated external stimulus is more attention getting than a
single one.
Motion: People will pay more attention to moving objects in their field of
Novelty: Either a familiar or a new factor in environment can attract more
Social Perception
Social perception is directly concerned with how one individual
perceives other individuals.
To learn about other people, they rely on information from their
physical appearance, and verbal and nonverbal communication
There can be ways in which people communicate without words—
including through facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body
position and movement, touch, and gaze.
A different perceptual activity ,called the attribution process
(theory), help us to interpret the world around us.
Attribution Theory
When people attach cause and effect explanation to their Behaviour,
it is known as attribution.
“Attribution theory deals with how the social perceiver uses
information to explain events. It examines what information is
gathered and how it is combined to form a causal judgment” (Fiske &
Taylor, 1991)
Perception of a person depends to a large extent on whether he
attributes the observed Behaviour.
The Attribution Process
Factors internal to the
 Information
 Perceived causes of Behaviour
(such as internal vs. external causes)
Made by the perceiver
For the perceiver
 Behaviour
Internal vs. External Causes of Behaviour
Consistency: This is related with the repetition of the same kind of behaviour.
It is the extent to which the person perceived behaves in the manner on other
occasions when faced with the same situation.
Distinctiveness: It refers to the extent to which the same person behaves in
the same fashion in different situation. They are those that are relatively
unique to the situation.
Consensus: It is the extent to which other people in the same situation
behave in the same way as the person under observation.
Factors Influencing Perception