Download Ecosystem Ecology

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Natural environment wikipedia, lookup

Theoretical ecology wikipedia, lookup

Molecular ecology wikipedia, lookup

Habitat conservation wikipedia, lookup

Human impact on the nitrogen cycle wikipedia, lookup

Ecosystem wikipedia, lookup

Bifrenaria wikipedia, lookup

Occupancy–abundance relationship wikipedia, lookup

Island restoration wikipedia, lookup

Habitat wikipedia, lookup

Latitudinal gradients in species diversity wikipedia, lookup

Introduced species wikipedia, lookup

Biodiversity action plan wikipedia, lookup

Ecological fitting wikipedia, lookup

Unified neutral theory of biodiversity wikipedia, lookup

Reconciliation ecology wikipedia, lookup

Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project wikipedia, lookup

Ecology wikipedia, lookup

Ecosystem services wikipedia, lookup

Ecological resilience wikipedia, lookup

Restoration ecology wikipedia, lookup

Overexploitation wikipedia, lookup

Conservation biology wikipedia, lookup

Biodiversity wikipedia, lookup

Biogeography wikipedia, lookup

Ecological succession wikipedia, lookup

Extinction wikipedia, lookup

Extinction debt wikipedia, lookup

Holocene extinction wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Ecology
Putting it all together
What is an ecosystem?
O Ecosystem – all of the living organisms that
share a region and interact with each other
and their non-living environment. Can differ
in size and features.
O Abiotic factors – non living components of
an ecosystem
O Biotic Factors – living organisms and their
products that occupy an ecosystem
3 Types of Ecology
O Ecosystem Ecology -
integrated study of
all living and nonliving factors that
operate within an
ecosystem
framework. Includes
food webs,
biogeochemical
cycles
Community Ecology
O studies how
populations of
different species
interact within a given
ecosystem. Includes
ecological
relationships:
Competition, Predation
Mutualism (Symbiosis,
Commensalism and
Parasitism), feeding
relationships and
ecological pyramids
Population Ecology
O deals with the
dynamics of species
populations and how
these populations
interact with the
environment. It is the
study of how the
population sizes of
species groups change
over time and space.
Population ecology
O A population is the number of individuals of
a single species that reside in a given area.
O limiting factors, tolerance and optimal
ranges and carrying capacities of a given
species.
An integrated approach
Ecosystem
• Abiotic and biotic
• Cycles/food webs
Community
• Interactions between
species
• Competition,
predation, mutualism
Population
• Growth of single
species
• Carrying capacity,
limiting factors, range
What is the value of
ecosystems?
O Why do we need
ecosystems?
O What value are they
to us when we can
grow our own
crops/livestock?
Cultural value of ecosystems
O Cultural services –
recreational,
aesthetic and
spiritual experiences
we receive when we
interact with natural
surroundings. Eg.
Ecotourism
Products
O Ecosystem Products
– ecosystems
produce many of the
things we use or
consume every day.
These include food,
medicine, water and
resources.
Services
O Regulatory and
protective services –
ecosystems protect
us from natural
threats (eg. Plants
protect soil from
erosion, filter air,
produce oxygen)
Total services provided
The value of ecosystems is
greatly reduced when
ecosystems are thrown off
balance!
Equilibrium and Change
O Most natural ecosystems are in a state of
equilibrium – relatively stable biotic and abiotic
features.
O Energy flows through food webs, nutrients are
recycled, photosynthesis and cellular respiration
are balanced
O On a small scale, most ecosystems are in
constant change. E.g. a fire breaks out, a tree
falls etc.
Ecological Succession
O Ecological succession – process of
establishing and replacing a community
following a disturbance.
O
O Primary succession – occurs on bare rock
where there was no previous life
O Secondary succession – follows a
disturbance that disrupts but does not
destroy the community.
Ecological Succession
O Benefits of succession – mechanism by
which ecosystems maintain their long-term
sustainability.
O Not all disturbances can be repaired through
natural succession. Human disturbances
often have to repair ecosystems through
processes that support natural succession.
Textbook question
O A Krakatoa eruption destroyed life and left
behind volcanic ash. A large chemical spill
can also destroy life. How would succession
be very different following these two events?
What is one way to ensure
stability of ecosystems?
Biodiversity
Biodiversity
O variety of life found in an area
O Measured by counting the number of species in
a specific habitat or ecosystem. This
measurement of species is called species
richness
O In general, species richness tends to be higher
close to the equator
O Tropical rainforests have the highest biodiversity
of any ecosystem.
Species at risk
O Many of the world’s
species are dying out
or going extinct.
Their habitats are
destroyed through
deforestation, urban
and agricultural
expansion, pollution
and climate change.
Extinction events
O Extinction is a natural process. Over
thousands of millions of years, some
species become extinct while new species
arise.
O There have been at least 5 major extinction
events in the past billion years.
Extinction
Extinction events are usually caused
by a catastrophic event such as an
asteroid impact or massive volcanic
eruption. Between such rare events,
extinction rates are low.
Unfortunately, human activity has
greatly increased the rate of
extinction.
Species at risk
O Species do not have to be driven to
extinction for there to be ecological
consequences
O In Canada, the status of species is
monitored by the Committee on the Status
of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.
Species at risk
O Extirpated – no longer exist in their native area but
are still alive elsewhere (eg. Atlantic walrus)
O Endangered – species are in imminent danger of
going extinct or becoming extirpated.
O Threatened – Species likely to become endangered if
current trends continue (ie. humpback whale)
O Special concern – may become threatened or
endangered because of a combination of factors.
Endangered
Threatened
Special concern
Population ecology
What about us?