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Properties and Preparation of Alcohols
Physical Properties of Alcohols
Solubility in Water
Alcohols with ≥6 C’s are water insoluble
Table of Ka Values
Properties of Alcohols: Acidity
Alcohols react with Alkali Metals like Na and K to
produce alkoxide ions and hydrogen gas
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 10
Synthesis of Alcohols (Review)
• Nucleophilic substitution (usually SN2)
of alkyl halide.
• Alkene Addition:
– Water in acid solution (suffers from
– Oxymercuration–demercuration.
– Hydroboration–oxidation.
Synthesis of Vicinal Diols
Vicinal diols:
• Syn hydroxylation of alkenes.
– Osmium tetroxide, hydrogen peroxide.
– Cold, dilute, basic potassium permanganate.
• Anti hydroxylation of alkenes.
– Peroxyacids followed by hydrolysis.
Grignard Reactions to produce Alcohols
To form a Grignard, an alkyl halide is treated with Mg
metal. Alkyl halides, aryl halides and vinyl halides are all
Grignard Reagents create
nucleophilic carbon