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World History
C.6-2 Notes
After the Punic Wars
Roman Empire expands = ___________________________
 Lands of _______________
 Lands of Alexander the Great
o Persia, Macedonia
o Egypt – _____________________
o Greece
Greece as part of the Roman Empire important
 Rome adopted many aspects of Greek culture
 Rome’s art and architecture reflected Greece
o Roman art = _______________________________
 Religion borrowed from Greeks
o Similar gods – different names
 Poseidon = ___________________
Effects of the empire on Rome
 ________________________ and new trade routes made Rome ___________________
 ________________ rich from loot
 New wealthy class
o Large farming estates = ____________________
 Had _____________ to work fields
 Cheaper products hurt small farmers
 Small farmers _____________________ and moved to _____________
 ____________________________________________________________ = riots
 ________________ and ______________________ replaced hard work and loyalty to Rome
Reform Attempts
 2 plebeian brothers – elected Tribunes
 ________________ and _________________ Gracchus
 Attempted reform
o Redistribute land to small farmers
o Public funds to _______________________________
 Angered the Senate – afraid they’d lose power
o Brothers killed in street violence set off by thugs hired by the Senate
**** Important -- Violence is now a _________________ ___________________.
Roman Republic Declines
 Problem 1 -- civil war
 Problem 2 -- who should hold power ?
o Senate or popular political leaders
 Problem 3 -- slave uprisings
Military in politics
107 B
___________________ – consul and military leader
 Wanted to increase army recruitment
 ______________________________________________ -- accepted anyone
 Poor joined army
o Attached to a specific general
o General shared land and plunder at end of war
o _________________________________________________________
 Effect was
 Armies became __________ ____________ devoted to the general
 General used troops as a political tool to increase their power
Civil War
88 BC
Lucius Cornelius Sulla – ambitious consul
 Marius tried to keep Sulla from getting a military command
 Sulla responds by _________________________________ with his legions = civil war!
 Sulla is victorious – becomes dictator
Reforms to protect the __________________ of the _______________
o Thought he had preserved the Republic
o Retired
Rome becomes an Empire
First Triumvirate = Julius ___________, ________________ and Crassus (rule of 3)
 60 BC – took over the Republic
 Julius Caesar and Pompey are generals
o Added much territory to the Republic
 Caesar – ________________ (modern day France)
 Pompey – _____________ and ________________r
 Crassus = one of the wealthiest men in Rome
o Dies early on
 Caesar is in Gaul - new conquests
 Pompey and Senate afraid Caesar is too ________________ and too _______________
o Order Caesar home without his troops!
o Caesar says ______
 Leads army across the Rubicon River into Rome
 = Civil War between Pompey and Caesar
 Caesar crushed Pompey and took full control of the Republic
o Forced Senate to name him _____________________
o Caesar kept the Senate but was in fact an absolute ruler
Caesar brought many changes
 48→44 BC
 Citizenship to many _______________________________________
 Reforms to deal with Rome’s problems
o ________________________ for the jobless
Public land given to the poor
New calendar based on Egypt’s
 __________________________
 With few changes still in use today
o Popular with the people
o Senate thought he wanted to be king and destroy the Republic
---- SO -- March 15, 44 BC - the Ides of March
o Caesar is _____________________________________________________
 60 Senators
 Tillius Cimber
 Gaius Cassius Longinus
 ____________________________________
Second Triumvirate
43 BC
_____________________, ____________________, and Lepidus
 Octavian is Caesars adopted son
 Marc Anthony is Caesar’s chief general and a loyal officer
 Lepidus is a high priest
Lepidus is pushed aside
Octavian and Marc Anthony
 Hunt down Caesar’s murderers
 Then argue amongst themselves
 Agree to each govern half of the empire
o Marc Anthony – __________
o Octavian – ____________
 Civil war breaks out between the two
o 31 BC
o Octavian defeats Marc Anthony and his Egyptian ally Cleopatra
 ***** Octavian rules alone
 ***** The Roman Republic is DEAD
Age of the Roman Empire
o Senate gives Octavian the title of ____________________ (exalted one or revered one)
o Octavian calls himself ____________________
o Government is known as the Principate
Augustan Age
o Ruled for 40 years (died in 14 AD)
o Divided power between himself and Senate
o Brought peace to the western part of the empire – Gaul and Spain
o Enlarged empire to the Danube River
o Firm, moderate policies
o Efficient civil service
o High level jobs to ____________________________________________________
o Cities and provinces – lots of self-government
Census – ______________________________
New ________________ – made trade easier
Created __________________ and ______________ brigades
Stockpiled food and water
Building program
 Jobless built roads, temples etc.
 Brick → marble
o No line of succession – so – death of a ruler = intrigue and violence
After Augustus – the quality of emperors vary
o Some good
o Some weak
o Some incompetent
o Relatives of Julius Caesar
o Emperors of empire for 54 years
o Abilities vary greatly
o ________________ – competent
o ________________ – brutal, mentally unstable (evil, insane)
 Appointed his horse as consul
o ______________
 Persecuted Christians
 Burned Rome ???
Civil War Again
o 4 military leaders,
o Last of them restored order and stability
The Good Emperors
o 5
o 96 -180 AD
o Ruled for a century from the provinces, not Rome
o opened up Senate to members of the provinces
o empire grew
o empire at it largest → Romania, Armenia, Mesopotamia, Sinai Peninsula
o thought empire too large and withdrew from eastern additions
o built defensive fortifications along frontier in Britain to hold back attackers from the north
o Hadrian’s Wall
o Codified laws – ______________________________
o __________________________________
Pax Romana
o The ___________________________
o 200 years – from _________________ (27 BC) → ______________________ (180 AD)
o Peace, order, unity, prosperity from Euphrates to Britain
o Stable government
o Strong legal system
o Widespread trade
o ___________________ maintained and protected the roads
 50,000 miles of roads built for military purposes
 ___________________
o Trade from one end of the empire to the other
o People moved within the empire – spreading ___________, ___________ and
Hellenistic ways
o ______________