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Students will define vocabulary associated with Chapter 5.2
Friday, October 18, 2013
 Define: Pages 152-159
 Triumvirate
 Dictator
 Imperator
 Julius Caesar
 Octavian
 A government by three people with equal power.
 An absolute ruler.
 Leadership by one person with total power
 Commander in chief. The English word emperor
comes from imperator.
Julius Caesar
 Julius Caesar was a Roman general, statesman, Consul
and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical
role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman
Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
 Augustus was the founder of the Roman Empire and
its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in
14 AD.
 Heir to Julius Caesars throne
From Republic to Empire
A New Role for the Army
After the victory against CARTHAGE the Romans moved towards
a PROFESSIONAL army. This idea came from a general named
MARIUS who promised each soldier a grant of LAND in return for
their service. When the council of PLEBS tried to give Marius
control of a war in Asia Minor, a general named Sulla (who was in
charge there), started a CIVIL war. Sulla was victorious by using a
reign of TERROR to wipe out the opposition. The next 50 years
were characterized by civil war.
 After the reign of Sulla for the next 50 years Rome
would be characterized by civil wars.
 Three men emerged as victors of the civil wars
 Crassus
 Pompey
 Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Richest man in Rome
Governed Gaul
Ruled over Syria
Crossed Rubicon
Killed in Battle 53 B.C
Started a civil war with
Julius Caesar
(45 B.C.)
Governed Spain
Senate wanted to
give him all the
Lost to Caesar and
lost the power
Julius Caesar
After defeating POMPEY and his army Caesar was made
DICTATOR (or absolute ruler) in 45 B.C.
This position was usually TEMPORARY
Recognizing the need for reform he gave land to the poor
and increased the SENATE to 900 members.
He filled it with his SUPPORTERS
Weakened the POWER of the senate
Granted citizenship to his supporters in the provinces
Introduced the SOLAR calendar.
Planned to build and conquer more places to the EAST
Many senators thought he was not going to give up his
He was assassinated by a group of SENATORS in 44 B.C
 A new power struggle between three men arose after
the death of Caesar
 Three men once again joined powers
 Octavian
 Anthony
 Lepidus
Caesar’s ally and
Caesar’s heir and
Took control of
Eastern Rome
Took control of
Western Rome
Allied with Cleopatra
Battle of Actium
Lost battle against
Octavian committed
At 32 stood supreme over
Roman world
Awarded title of Augustus
Age of Augustus
Title of imperator (commander
in chief)
A commander in
Caesar’s cavalry
Fell off as a
 Restored the Republic
 Stabilized the frontiers of the Roman Empire
 Defeat in Germany troubled Augustus and taught him
his power was not unlimited
 After Augustus death a series of new emperors ruled
 First four from his family
 Tiberius
 Caligula
 Claudius
 Nero
 Became more and more corrupt
 Nero for example had people killed who got in his way
 Committed suicide after his legions revolted
 Five good emperors who came to power
Antoninus Pius
Marcus Aurelius
 Treated ruling classes with respect
 Ended arbitrary executions
 Maintained peace
 Supported domestic policies
 Extended Roman rule into Dacia, the Sinai Peninsula,
and Mesopotamia
 Strengthened the fortifications along the line
connecting the Rhine and Danube Rivers
 Built Hadrian’s wall-74 mile wall
 At its height the Roman Empire had a population
estimated at more than 50 million
 Compare and Contrast
 ABC writing