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consistent with benefits. On the other hand, in Japanese projects, the total cost of the Oimachi
Station Building was allocated in proportion to the floor area by usage, and the cost of the
public passageway was partially absorbed by the national government. Even if this particular
approach to allocation is questionable, continued efforts of this kind may eventually lead to the
right system or formula. Second, the connection between the station and the neighborhood
should be carefully designed. If downtown stations are surrounded by densely built
neighborhoods, the station and the ground tracks, if any, may separate the neighborhood.
Thus, a public passageway where people can walk over the station and tracks without entering
station fare gates is important to combine both sides. Third, if the station is not a historic one
which includes a large concourse, it should, instead, should provide public facilities such as a
public hall or a branch of the Town Hall. Fourth and lastly, even if the station seems too small
for shopping purposes, it is possible for the success to narrow the targeted shoppers, as was
done in the Yotsuya Station Building.
Directions for further research
Several things remain to be done for a comprehensive study on joint development at
downtown rail stations. First, as regards the development process, risks and political issues
should be analyzed. It is important to consider which of the entities involved in each
development will take financial risks, when they will take them, and to what extent. This issue
should be analyzed together with the profit allocations of each development, because the risks
taken will be compensated for by the profits allocated from the total profits of the development.
It is also important to consider the political issues involved; i.e., who supported and opposed
the development, why they did so, and how they negotiated with one another. This is one of
essential perspectives in the analysis of the relationship among the entities in each development.
Despite the importance of these two issues, I have had to leave them untouched because of a
lack of information.