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private entities developing the real estate, public transit
authorities, and other public agencies. 1
Ten years late, after a number of joint development projects in the 1980s, the ULI's definition
of joint development was altered slightly different way by the National Council for Urban
Economic Development (NCUED)
with the assistance of the Urban Mass Transit
Administration (UMTA):
Joint development has emerged as one product of the
transportation-economic development relationship. Strictly
defined, it is the relationship between transit and real estate
whereby each contributes significantly to the other's value.
... Loosely defined, joint development is any private sector
contribution towards public transportation which either
decreases the costs of operating or constructing public transit
systems, stations or improvements, or somehow contributes
to the increased ridership of the system.2
While the ULI thought that joint development would be private development with contributions
from transportation facilities, the NCUED perceived it as a private sector contribution to public
transportation facilities in their loose definition. Following that, Cervero defined it as follows
for the purposes of his study, Transit Joint Development in the United States, published in
1992:
Any formal agreement or arrangement between a public
transit agency and a private individual or organization that
involves either private-sector payments to the public entity, or
private-sector sharing of capital costs in mutual recognition of
the enhanced real estate development or market potential
3
created by the siting of a public transit facility.
In this statement, he does not pay attention to which sector benefits from which sector;
according to him, all that is a relationship between two sectors. Generally speaking, according
to the above three definitions, joint development requires three common components: a physical
connection between real estate development and transportation facilities; a relationship between
transportation agencies and other private or public entities; and, any contributions made by one
1 ULI Reserch Division, JointDevelopment: Making the reaal Estate--TransitConnection, 1979, p. 1.
2 The National Council for Urban Economic Development, Moving Towards Joint Development: The
Economic Development - Transit Partnership,1989, p. 3.
3 Robert Cervero. Transit Joint Developoment in the United States, University of California at Berkeley, 1992,
p. 4 .