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sector to another. Because physical connections vary from a single passageway between a
commercial property and a station to a large building combining station facilities with
commercial floors, there are many varieties of joint development. Physical connections almost
involuntarily create relationships among entities which own, lease, or manage property. A
mutual contribution, however, has to be made intentionally. Cervero pointed out that mutual
contribution can be divided into two types, i.e., revenue-sharing arrangements and cost-sharing
arrangements. 4
Past studies on joint development
Past studies are divided into two groups according to their themes: research focused
mainly on individual joint development projects and research focused on the policies of
transportation agencies. With respect to case study classification, more multiple-case studies
have been found than single-case studies. As for studies involving individual projects, there is
Chu's examination the feasibility of plans for air-rights at Boston's South Station, in which he
determines that private investment would be indispensable. 5 Thomas has looked at the manner
in which cities and developers might identify the key problems and opportunities in the Kansas
City Union Station project. He examined three alternative development options: privately-led
development, publicly-led development, and public/private joint-development. He, too,
concluded that a substantial subsidy would be required to meet the developers' financial return
goals in any of the three options. 6 Unlike these two single-case studies, the ULI Research
Division minutely studied seven joint development projects in five cities in the U.S. and
Canada. According to their study, joint development implementation efforts are comprised of
two distinct but related activities in planning and development: policy-making and deal-making.
4 Ibid.
5 Michael Chu, Development planfor the airrights at South Station transportationcenter, 1985.
6 James E. Thomas, The interactionofpublic/privatedevelopment constraints:opportunitiesfor the reuse of
Kansas City's historic Union Station, 1986.