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Chapter 4: Conclusion
It is important to clarify how the background of joint development in the U.S. and in
Japan differs, before international similarities and other differences can be considered. First, the
Japanese rail system attracts a greater portion of passengers, as described in Section 3.1. When
considered nationwide, the share of rail transportation of the U.S. was 0.7 percent, while that
of Japan was as much as 34.8 percent in 1990, although if we take into account only the
commuters in the Northeast region of the U.S., the share will increase somewhat. In the
context of joint development, this difference means that the number of passengers passing
through stations daily is much greater in Japan than it is in the U.S. In Japan, therefore, joint
development has a great advantage over other development in terms of the number of potential
Another important difference is that Japanese stations were rarely revitalized within
existing station buildings. This is partly because the station buildings were not so magnificent
as those of the U.S., many of which were valuable in terms of their historic architecture, and
partly because the rapid increase of ridership made the capacity of the old stations insufficient.
Based on my individual analyses of the U.S. projects and the Japanese projects, and on
the differences in the background of joint development in the two countries, I will discuss the
comparison from the following three points of view: development process and financial
structure, site and floor planning, and marketing and management. Finally, I will consider the
mutual applicability of joint development.