Download Unit 8, Part 2: Geography and Rise of The Roman Empire

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Unit 8, Part 2:
The Late
GROWTH - Territory
• Roman territory mainly grew in response to
outside threats.
• Gauls - In 387 BC attacked Rome and took over
the city. The Romans had to give the Gauls a
huge amount of gold to leave the city.
• Other neighboring cities thought they might also
try the same thing, but the Romans managed to
fight them off.
• As they defeated these attackers, they took over
their lands.
• Rome soon controlled all of the Italian Peninsula
except northern Italy.
GROWTH – Farming & Trade
• Before Rome conquered Italy, most Romans were
• As the republic grew, many left their farms for
• In place of small farms, wealthy Romans built
large farms called latifundia in the countryside
that were worked by slaves and grew one or two
crops. The owners stayed in the cities and let
others run the farms for them.
• As the republic grew, trade expanded. Farmers
couldn’t keep up with the growing populations,
so merchants brought food from other parts of
the Mediterranean. They also brought metal
goods and slaves to Rome. Romans began to
make metal coins to pay for these goods.
• As Rome’s power grew, other countries
saw them as a threat and declared war
on Rome.
• Punic Wars – Series of 3 wars against
Carthage, a city in northern Africa
(Punic means “Phoenician” in Latin)
that took place between 264 and 146 BC
• Began when Carthage sent its armies to
Sicily (large island of the toe of the
boot). Rome responded by sending an
army to the island, and a war soon
broke out that lasted almost 20 years
before the Romans finally forced their
enemies out and took control of Sicily.
• Started in 218 BC when the Carthage
general Hannibal attacked a Roman
ally in Spain.
• Hannibal set out to attack Rome,
taking an overland route starting in
Spain, crossing the Alps, and coming
from the north. (More about this on
the next slide.)
• Although he came close to capturing
Rome, the Romans had sent an army
to attack Carthage, so Hannibal had
to rush home to defend his city.
• His troops were defeated.
• One of the greatest generals and military
strategists of the ancient world.
• Hated Rome
• Best known for his epic crossing of the Alps with
an army, cavalry, and war elephants. Over half
his army died from the severe cold, and Hannibal
himself was blinded in one eye.
• After the Second Punic War, he was made leader
of Carthage, but later was forced by the Romans
to flee the city. He went to Asia and joined with a
king fighting the Romans there. The king was
defeated, and Hannibal killed himself so that he
wouldn’t become a Roman prisoner.
• By the 140s BC many senators worried
that Carthage was growing powerful
again. They convinced the consuls to
declare war on Carthage.
• An army was sent to Africa and destroyed
• The Romans burned the city, killed most
of its people, sold the rest into slavery,
and took control of northern Africa.
• During the Punic Wars, Rome took
control of Sicily, Corsica, Spain, and
North Africa, and controlled most of the
western Mediterranean region.
Organization of the Roman army was one of the
biggest reasons for Rome’s victories. While there
were several levels, the most well-known are:
• Legions – groups of 6,000 soldiers
• Centuries – legions divided into centuries, or
groups of 100
• This organization provided a clear chain of
command and allowed the army the
flexibility of either fighting as a large group
or as several small ones.
Had to be at least 18 years old to join and
between 5’ 3” and 5’ 10” tall.
Could not get married
After 25 years, could retire with a pension (paid
Army couldn’t enter Rome except for parades
celebrating a great victory. Only the emperor’s
personal guards, the Praetorian Guard were
allowed in the city limits.
For many poor Romans, joining the army was a
step up in life.
A legionnaire could earn up to 300 denarli a year,
though the army kept some of the paycheck to
cover food, weapons, and even pensions.
Weapons weighed an average of 30 pounds
Each group of 8 also had to split up and carry
another 40 pounds of supplies such as their tents,
cooking utensils, and digging equipment
Had to be able to march 20 miles in 5 hours
Much of daily life consisted of practicing battle
formations and techniques, building roads
(elaborate road system that allowed army to travel
quickly), and building forts.
HH Qualify for Triumph, A Book
Roman Toilet (goes with quiz)
Pugio – dagger
Gladius – sword
Pilum – spear
Ballista – crossbow
Caltrop – cavalry “landmine”
Show battle scene
CRISIS – Gracchus Brothers
• As Roman territory grew, problems arose in the
• Rich were getting richer, and leaders feared that
violence would erupt between rich and poor.
• Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus – brothers who were
tribunes who tried to help the poor
Tiberius – Wanted to create farms for poor Romans on public
lands that wealthy citizens had illegally taken over. The public
supported this, but the wealthy opposed it. Conflict over the
idea led to riots in the city, during which Tiberius was killed.
Gaius – A few years later tried to create new farms. Began
selling food cheaply to the poor. Angered many powerful
Romans and was killed for his ideas.
• The violent deaths of the Gracchus brothers changed
Roman politics. From that time on people saw
violence as a political weapon.
CRISIS – Marius and Sulla
• Gaius Marius – Consul who encourage
thousands of poor and unemployed citizens to
join the Roman army in 107 BC because the army
desperately needed more troops. Before, only
people who owned property had been allowed to
join. He was a good general, his troops were more
loyal to him than to Rome, and the army’s
support gave him great political power.
• Lucius Cornelius Sulla – Became consul in 88 BC
and soon came into conflict with Marius, which
resulted in a civil war (war between citizens of the
same country). Sulla defeated Marius, named
himself dictator, and used his power to punish his
CRISIS – Spartacus
• Former gladiator
• Led thousands of slaves in an uprising, demanding
• He and his followers defeated an army sent to stop
them and took over much of southern Italy.
• Spartacus was killed in battle, and without his
leadership, the revolt fell apart.
• The Romans crucified (executed by nailing them to
a cross) 6,000 rebellious slaves along the road
between Rome and Capua as an example to others
who thought about rebelling.
I'm Spartacus Movie Clip